Proximate Composition of Magnifera Indica (German Mango) Fruit Peel

Proximate Composition of Magnifera Indica (German Mango) Fruit Peel

Mango (Mangifera indica), is an Indian and a tropical evergreen(deciduous) tree which produces green fruits when unripe but green to light green or yellowish to reddish (sweet, juicy and succulent) fruits when ripe. Mangifera indica is the most economically important fruit in the Anacardiaceae family (Seifu, 2010). The genus Mangifera contains several species that bear edible fruits. Most of the fruit trees that are commonly known as mangos belong to the species Mangifera indica.

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There are other edible Mangifera species that generally have lower quality fruits that are commonly referred to as wild mangos (Bally, 2006).

The mango is known to have originated about 4000 years ago in Asia and the trees are favored by tropical and subtropical climate. They grow to about 18m (or even more) and bear fruits four to six years after planting. Among internationally traded tropical fruits, mango ranks second only to banana both in quantity and quality and fifth in total production among major fruit crops worldwide (FAO, 2004). World production of mangoes is estimated to be over 26 million tons per annum and India ranks first among the world’s producing countries, accounting for 54.2% of the total mangos produced worldwide. It is commercially the most important fruit crop in India with more than a thousand varieties known to date. The other prominent mango producing countries are China, Thailand, Mexico, Pakistan, Indonesia, Philippines and Nigeria (Morton, 1987).

Among the major producers of mango in the World, Nigeria ranks 8th (Yusuf and Salau, 2007), and Benue ranks first (1st) in the league of States that produce mangos in Nigeria (Yusuf and Salau, 2007). The other mango producing States in Nigeria include; Jigawa, Plateau, Kebbi, Niger, Kaduna, Kano, Bauchi, Sokoto, Adamawa Taraba and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) (Yusuf and Salau, 2007). In Nigeria, the Hausas in the North call it ‘mangoro’ (FAO, 2004) while the Tivs in North-Central (Benue state), where it is mostly cultivated, call it ‘mongo’.

The mango fruit is classified as a drupe (fleshy with a single seed enclosed in the endocarp) (Bally, 2006). The mesocarp is the fleshy, edible part of the fruit that usually has a sweet and slightly turpentine flavor when ripe. Its colour varies from yellow to orange and its texture from smooth to fibrous (Bally, 2006). Blessed with all the natural ingredients, mango fruit juice possesses salient properties such as detoxification, energizing of human body, and improving human complexion. It also contains tryptophan, the precursor for seratonin; the “happiness hormone” alongside glutamine, known to be an important amino acid that enhances concentration in humans as well as memory gain. This has underscored its overwhelming acceptability and consumption worldwide. It is also medicinal, a natural antioxidant and a very good source of both vitamin A and vitamin C (Ajila et al., 2007).

The ripe pulp may be spiced and preserved in Jars. Ripe mangoes are sometimes peeled, sliced and canned in syrup, or made into jar, marmalade, jelly or nectar (Morton, 1987). The extracted pulpy juice that is of fibrous types is used for making mango halva and mango leather. Mango juice may be sprayed, dried, powdered and used in infant foods as well as foods for the physically challenged and invalid foods, or reconstituted and drank as a beverage. The dried Juice, blended with wheat flour has been made into “cereal” flakes. A dehydrated mango custard powder has also been developed in India, especially for use in baby foods (Morton, 1987).

The mango is a delicious fruit that is readily enjoyed all over the world. The mango skin, on the other hand, is often discarded without a second thought. This is because people do not know that mango peels offer a delightful array of nutrients and health benefits to anyone who chomps down on one. Although a bitter and tough meal, mango peels are perfectly edible and may readily reward anyone who tries them. Mango peels can be fed fresh, dried or ensiled. Due to their high sugar content, they are palatable to ruminants and can be considered as an energy feed, but the high moisture and acidity of fresh peels may limit their use (Sruamsiri et al., 2009).
Because of their low protein content, the addition of a source of nitrogen or protein is necessary to allow an efficient utilisation of the energy in the diet. In order to produce good silage, mango peels have to be mixed with dry materials (straw for example) and a nitrogen source (a legume for example) to increase moisture and protein content to facilitate fermentation (Sruamsiri et al., 2009).

The aim of this study is to quantitatively evaluate the proximate composition of Mangifera indica (German mango) fruit peel.

The objective of the study include the following:
i.To determine the crude protein, crude fat, moisture, ash and fiber content of fruit peel of Mangifera indica.


Mangifera indica trees are deep-rooted symmetrical evergreen tree that attain heights of 60-75 meters and width of 10 meters. It belongs to the family of Anacardiaceae which can be planted in poorer sandy types of soils provided they are not waterlogged, shallow or too acidic. It has one seed that is flattened and sticks to the flesh. The seed contains one or more embryos depending on the variety type. The tree may remain in production for 40 years or more. Fruits are usually pricked after they develop some red, orange or yellow color. The harvest season is usually between June and September depending on the variety. Mature mango fruit can be stored fairly well under refrigeration for 2 to 3 weeks at 50° – 55° (Condole, 1984).


Figure 1: Mangitfera indica (Condole, 1984).

Origin and Distribution of Magnitfera Indica
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is one of the ancient fruits of India and its cultivation appeared to have began 4000 years ago (Condole, 1984). It was originated as alloploid and its home was suggested as eastern India extending from Assam to Buoma or possibly further in Malag region (Condole, 1989). Based on recent foundings (Mukherjee, 1997), the centre of origin and diversity of genus Mangifera is now firmly established in South Asia.

The genus Mangifera consists of 41 species and all the edible cultivars of mango belong to single species of Mangifera indica L. A large variability exist in mango germplasm throughout the country (Gupta et al., 1996). Being an ancestral home for mango germplasm India is having more than thousand varieties, which are widely distributed in different agro climatic zones (Yadav and Raja, 1993).

India is the largest mango producing country, with an annual production of 16.2 metric tons and occupies an area of 2.38m ha which accounts for 6.5% of total world production. There are bright prospects of building up a flourishing trade for the export of this fruit. Although, mangoes are exported to nearly 20 countries, whereas its products are exported to over 40 countries (Nogi et al., 2000), stilt there are many doors pending to be opened to flourish trading for export of this fruit.

Description: Mangos are the most important tropical fruit crop after bananas and plantains (FAO, 2011). The mango fruit is a large fleshy drupe, highly variable in size, shape, colour and taste, weighing up to 1 kg in some cultivars. There are more than 1000 mango cultivars. Green when unripe, after 3 to 6 months the fruit turns orange-reddish as it ripens. The fruit consists of a woody endocarp (pit), a resinous edible mesocarp (flesh) and a thick exocarp (peel). The majority of mango production is consumed fresh and about 1-2% of the production is processed to make products such as juices, nectars, concentrates, jams, jelly powders, fruit bars, flakes and dried fruits (Berardini et al., 2005; Jedele et al., 2003). Mango varieties too fibrous or too soft for fresh consumption can be used for juice making (Hui, 2007).

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Taxonomical classification of Mangifera indica.
The taxonomical position of Mangifera indica are as shown below:
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass Rosidae
Order Sapindales
Family Anacardiaceae – Sumac family
Genus Mangifera L. – mango P
Species Mangifera indica L. – mango P (Hui, 2007).

Industrial Application of Magnitera Indica
The production, trade and consumption of mango fruits have increased significantly both domestically and internationally due to attractive nutritional value of the fruits. Thus, mangoes are commercially cultivated in more than 103 countries worldwide and production is increasing each year due to increasing consumer demand. Approximately 77% of the world’s mangoes are produced in Asian countries, while 13% and 9% are produced in the Americas and African countries respectively (FAO, 2007). The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, 2007) estimates that the world’s production of mango fruits is over 26 million tones annually. The top five mango-producing countries are India, China, Thailand, Mexico and Indonesia (FAO, 2007).
Approximately, 68.5% of the world’s mangoes are currently produced by these five countries. From 2003-2005, India was the largest mango producer, accounting for 38.6% of the mangoes produced, followed by China (12.9%), Thailand (6.2%), Mexico (5.5%) and Indonesia (5.3%) (FAO, 2007). Masibo and He, (2009) reported that among the world’s mango-producing countries, India was the largest producer, accounting for 54.2% of the mangoes produced worldwide.

According to FAO (2007), approximately 912, 853 metric tons of mangoes were exported worldwide in 2005. The top five mango exporting countries are Mexico, India, Brazil, Parkistan and Netherlands. Approcimately, 69.4% of the world’s mangoes were exported by these five countries. Mango export have increased steadily due to increasing consumer demand. Mexico (22.6%) was the largest mango exporter in the world, followed by India (20.3%), Brazol (13.2%), Paskistan (6.9%) and the Netherlands (6.4%). Although India was the largest mango producer, it was surpassed by Mexico in terms of mango exports from 2003 to 2005 (FAO, 2007).

The top five mango importing countries include USA, Netherlands, the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia and China. The world’s mango imports increased steadily from 2003 to 2005, approximately 60.4% of the world’s mango imports were imported by the five countries (FAO, 2007). The USA alone imported approximately 32.7% of the world’s mango. Other prominent mango-importing countries were Nertherlands (10.6%), the United Arab Emirate (6.8), Saudi Arbic (5.3%) and China (4.9%). Mango imports in China dramatically decreased in 2005 which may have been due to an increase in domestic production. China imported 57 metric tones of mango fruits in 2004 which decreased to 19 metric tones in 2005 (FAO, 2007).

Economic Importance of Mangifera indica
Wood is extensively used for low-cost furniture, floor, ceiling boards, window frames, heavy packing cases, match splints, brush backs, oar blades, agricultural implements etc. It is also suitable for tea chest plywood. A hard charcoal of high calorific value is obtained from mango wood. After preservative treatment, it can be used as a substitute for teak as beams, rafters, trusses, and door and window frames. It is suitable for slate frames, ammunition boxes, bobbins, carving and turnery work (Karoly, 2011).

The bark possesses 16% to 20% tannin and has been employed for tanning hides. It yields a yellow dye, or, with turmeric and lime, a bright rose-pink. The bark contains mangiferine and is astringent and employed against rheumatism and diphtheria in India (Karoly, 2011). The resinous gum from the trunk is applied on cracks in the skin of the feet and on scabies, and is believed to be helpful in cases of syphilis. Mango kernel decoction and powder (nottannin-free) are used as vermifuges and as astringents in diarrhoea, hemorrhages and bleeding hemorrhoids. The fat is administered in cases of stomatitis. Extracts of unripe fruits and of bark, stems and leaves have shown antibiotic activity (Karoly, 2011).

A somewhat resinous, red-brown gum from the trunk is used for mending crockery in tropical Africa. In India, it is sold as a substitute for gum arabic. Dried flowers are of medicinal value and used for curing dysentery and cattarah. It is a cure for wasp sting, when rubbed between hands placed in the affected area and allowed to dry. Mango fruit is one of the delicious fruit of India exported to many countries. The green unripe fruits are used in curries, sharbats and pickles (Karoly, 2011).

Mango peels
Mango peels can be fed fresh, dried or ensiled. Due to their high sugar content, they are palatable to ruminants and can be considered as an energy feed, but the high moisture and acidity of fresh peels may limit their use. Because of their low protein content, the addition of a source of nitrogen or protein is necessary to allow an efficient utilisation of the energy in the diet. In order to produce good silage, mango peels have to be mixed with dry materials (straw for example) and a nitrogen source (a legume for example) to increase moisture and protein content to facilitate fermentation (Sruamsiri and Silman, 2009).

The mango is a delicious fruit that is readily enjoyed the world over. The mango skin, on the other hand, is often discarded without a second thought. This is a shame since mango peels offer a delightful array of nutrients and health benefits to anyone who chomps down on one. Although a bitter and tough meal, mango peels are perfectly edible and will readily reward anyone who tries them.

Proximate Composition
Originally, the most extensive information about the composition of foods was based on a system of analysis described as the proximate analysis of foods, which was devised over 100 years ago by two German scientists, Henneberg and Stohmann (Karoly, 2011). Recently, new analytical techniques have been introduced and the information about food composition is rapidly expanding. However, the system of proximate analysis still forms the basis for the statutory declaration of the composition of foods in Europe and across the world (Karoly, 2011). Proximate analysis of food is the determination of the major components of foods, which include moisture, lipids (fats), ash (minerals), protein, carbohydrate and fiber (Onwuka, 2005). In practical terms, the methods used for the determination of different food components do not only vary according to the food material being studied but also in details of evaluation procedure (Onwuka, 2005). These methods were evolved by thorough studies of the inherent properties of the component of interest and exploring the unique advantage such properties have over others, thus allowing the component to be either isolated or eliminated (Pearson, 1976). However, in most of these determinations, allowances have to be made for interference arising from the food itself or contamination of reagents. It therefore becomes necessary to replicate each experimental determination to compensate for errors (Pearson, 1976).

Moisture Content
Moisture content of food is of great important to every food processor as a number of biochemical reactions and physiological changes in food depend very much on the moisture content (Onwuka, 2005). Of even greater significance is the effect of moisture on the stability and quality of foods. Therefore moisture determination is one of the vital evaluation of components of food in the laboratories to ascertain the stability of food substances at varied conditions (Onwuka, 2005).

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The moisture content is determined as the loss in weight that results from drying a known weight of food to constant weight at about 100°C – 102°C. This method is satisfactorily for most foods, but with a few such as silage, significant losses of volatile material may take place (Karoly, 2011). Except for a few common foods like sugar, common salt and cooking oil, foods generally contain reasonable quantities of water. The percentage of water in foods and the state in which it occurs (free or bound) are important factors in determining the storage life of different foods with fresh fruits, roots and vegetable having high percentage of free water and so have a much shorter shelf life than grain, cereals and legumes which have lower content (mostly in bound form) (Okaka et al., 2006).

Moisture content or water content is the quantity of water contained in a material such as fruit, seed or food substance (Suzanne, 2010). There is a substantial amount of moisture in what seems to be a dry matter (Isengard, 2001). Moisture analysis covers a variety of methods for measuring moisture contents in both high level and trace amounts in solids, liquids or even gases. Moisture in percentage amount is monitored as a specification in commercial food production and for manufacturing and process quality (Suzanne, 2010).
Moisture content is one of the most commonly measured properties of food materials and it is important to food scientists for a number of different reasons (McClements, 2005).

1. Legal and labeling requirements: There are legal limits to the maximum or minimum amount of water that must be present in certain types of food.

2. Economic: The cost of many foods depends on the amount of water they contain. Water is an inexpensive ingredient and manufacturers often try to incorporate as much as possible in a food, without exceeding some maximum legal requirement.

3. Microbial stability: The propensity of micro-organism to grow in foods depends on water content. For this reason many foods are dried below some critical moisture content.

4. Food quality: The texture taste, appearance and stability of food depend on the amount of water they contain.

5. Food processing operations: Knowledge of the moisture content is often necessary to predict the behavior of foods during processing, e.g. mixing, drying, flow through a pipe or packaging (McClements, 2005).

6. Shelf life of the food or food products: Microbial activity of the food materials is favoured with the moisture availability in the food. Moisture rich foods are easily susceptible to the microbial attack and such will easily get spoilt. Thus the shelf of the food material is determined by the moisture content in the food. Low moisture foods materials usually slow down growth of micro-organism hence the need for analysis and control of moisture content of food materials (Isengard, 2001). It is therefore important for food scientists to be able to reliably measure moisture contents of food materials (McClements, 2005).

Ash in food constitutes the residue remaining after all the moisture has been removed as well as the organic materials (fats, proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, organic acids, etc) have been burnt away after igniting at a temperature of about 500°C (Onwuka, 2005). The ash content is determined by ignition of a known weight of the food at about 550°C until all carbon has been removed. The residue is the ash and is taken to represent the inorganic constituent of the food (Karoly, 2011). Ash residue is generally taken to be a measure of the mineral content of the original food (Onwuka, 2005).

Thus mineral constitute the total ash obtained from combustion of organic matter and include a fewnon-metallics, which volatize into gas even at reasonably low temperature (Okaka et al., 2006). The ash may however, contain material of organic origin such as sulphur and phosphorus from proteins and some loss of volatile material in the form of sodium, chloride, potassium, phosphorus and sulphur will take place during ignition. The ashcontent is thus not truly a representative of the total inorganic material in the food either quantitatively or qualitatively (Karoly, 2011).

Minerals are ionic (inorganic) compounds that regulate the metabolic process in the body and are essential within the body (Oselebe and Nwani, 2006). Minerals are required in small amounts; hence they like vitamins are called micro nutrients and like some other nutrients, mineral elements have been divided into essential and non-essential groups not from the stand point of whether they can or cannot be synthesized in the body since they cannot, but rather exist as such in foods (Okaka et al., 2006). Mineral elements are classified on the following basis (James, 1996).

II. Major element (>0.01% or 100ppm): calcium, phosphorus, chlorine, sulphur, potassium, magnesium and sodium.

III. Trace elements (<0.01% or 100ppm): arsenic, copper, iron, nickel, tin, chromium, fluorine, manganese, selenium,, vanadium, cobalt, iodine, molybdenum, silicon and zinc.

IV. Non-essential and toxic mineral elements: beryllium, lead, cadmium, palladium, mercury and thallium.
The functions of certain minerals are known and specific, but a whole lot have not being known of some (Okaka et al, 2006). Calcium plays a structural and storage role (providing rigidity and strength for the teeth skeleton) in addition to its role in regulation of body processes. E.g., nerve signals, blood clothing and blood pressure (Gibney et al, 2007). Phosphorus is found in form of hydroxyapatite in bones and teeth. It also functions in energy transfer as component of DNA and RNA in buffer formation and components of phospholipids used for transportantion of phosphate groups (Gibney et al, 2007). Sodium, chlorine, potassium, sulphur and others serve majorly as body electrolyte and are hemostats (Okaka et al., 2006).

Elements ingested through food and water in milligrams or less per day are trace elements (O’Dell and Sunde, 1997). Most of these trace elements such as zinc, copper, selenium etc acts as cofactors to many enzymes and others like iodine, chromium, iron etc. are involve in regulation of body processes (Gibney et al., 2007). The non-essential (ultra trace) are so called because the amount required by the body are so small with estimated dietary requirement less than 1mg/kg diet and are present in tissues at concentrations in the range of micrograms per kilogram (Shills et al, 2006). The body naturally consumes enough and is never deficient in these nutrients (Gibney et al, 2007). A slight increase beyond a certain critical amount therefore becomes a problem to the body and supplements are contraindicated (Gibney et al., 2007). The most common non-essential which are mostly heavy metals but nutritionally important mineral from the view point of toxicity are lead, mercury, arsenic and cadmium (Okaka et al., 2006). Lead like other heavy metals could accumulate in the body until toxic levels are reached. Symptoms of lead poisoning include irreversible damage to the central nervous system and the kidneys and the impairment of the body to produce blood cells. Mercury toxicity include visual disturbances, hearing difficulties, headache, dizziness, irritability, depression, restlessness, insomnia and inco-ordination, arsenic and the rest also exhibit one toxicity symptoms or the others (Okaka et al., 2006).

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Crude Fibre
Fiber consists of substances in plant foods including carbohydrates and lignin that, for the most past, cannot be digested by humans. It follows that humans do not produce digestives enzymes capable of breaking down the chemical bonds that hold the simple carbohydrates of most plant fibers (Godner et al., 2004). Burkitt and Trowell defined fiber as the components of plant cell wall that are indigestible in the human small intestine which was later expanded to include some storage polysaccharides within plant cells (e.g. the gums in some legumes) (Gibney et al., 2007). Fiber thus refers to several kinds of carbohydrate substances from different plant sources; all serve similar functions in the human body. They are divided into two categories based on theirs solubility in fluids. Soluble dietary fibers include pectin, mucilage, psyllium seed husk, guar gum and other related gums. On the other hand insoluble fibers include cellulose and hemicelluloses of which basically provide structure and protection for plants (Godney et al., 2004).

Furthermore, fiber can also be seen as a complex macro molecular plant material that is resistant to hydrolysis or breakdown by the enzymes of the mammalian digestive tract with most compounds identified as fiber being the plant cell wall components. The simplest fiber is the polysaccharide – cellulose with fruits and vegetables tending to have higher levels of cellulose than cereals (Igwenyi, 2008). Cellulose is a fibrous, tough, water- insoluble substance found in the cell walls of plants.
Most animals cannot use cellulose as a fuel source because they lack an enzyme to hydrolyze the (β1 – 4) glycosidic linkages (Nelson and Cox, 2008).
Crude fiber should never be equated to dietary fiber is the total fiber in a plant source (Okaka et al., 2006). Two plant materials may have the same dietary fiber content (i.e. pectin + hemicelluloses + cellulose + lignin) and yet have different levels of crude fiber. This is so because dietary fiber is equivalent to total fiber but crude fiber is not since hemicelluloses and pectin which are part of total fiber are destroyed during crude fiber analysis by the hot acid and alkali employed (Okaka et al, 2006). Dietary fiber in foods however is determined by the acid detergent procedure, which does destroy hemicelluloses and pectin (Okaka et al., 2006).
Fiber supplements or fiber- rich foods may function as normal dietary agents by modulating the digestive and absorptive process. Thus they are very important in promoting a range of physiological effects, including increased fecal bulk, reduced plasma – cholesterol level, reduced postprandial (after meal) responses and metabolic processes (Igwenyi, 2008).

Crude Lipid
Lipids are chemically diverse group of compounds, the common and defining feature of which is their insolubility in water (Nelson and Cox, 2008). They are substances of biological origin (plants and animals) that are insoluble in water but soluble in one another as well as in non-polar and organic solvents such as chloroform, ether, alcohol, benzene, carbon tetrachloride (CC14) (Igwenyi, 2008). Such a definition includes free fatty acids, alcohols (other than glycerol which is soluble in water) some hydrocarbons such as carotenoids and the fat – soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) (Igwenyi, 2008).

In general, lipids are characterized by their sparing solubility in water and their considerable solubility in organic solvents, the property that show their hydrophobic and hydrocarbon nature (Onwuka, 2005). Lipids have been classified into the following three simple groups.

a) Derived lipids made up of the terpenes and steroids

b) Complex lipids made up of the phospholipids and spingolipids

c) Simple lipids made up of simple fats, waxes, glycerol diesters and free fatty acids (Okaka et al., 2006).

The fats and oil that occur in plants and animals consist largely of mixtures of triacylglycerols (also referred to as triglyceride or neutral fat) (Igwenyi, 2008). The biological functions of the lipids are as diverse as their chemistry. Fat and oils are the principal stored forms of energy in many organisms (Nelson and Cox, 2008).

Phospholipids and sterols are major structural elements of biological membrane. Other lipids, although present in relatively small quantities play crucial roles as enzyme cofactors, electron carriers, light – absorbing pigments, hydrophobic anchors for protein “chaperones” to help membrane proteins fold, emulsifying agents in digestive tract, hormones and intra cellular messengers (Nelson and Cox, 2008). Usually in food analysis, total lipid content is what is determined rather that true fat content and this has resulted in the terms fat and lipid becoming virtually indistinguishable. Most common method used for lipid determinations is soxhlet extraction method which extracts lipids using a suitable solvent before evaporation of the extracting solvent (Onwuka, 2005).

Carbohydrates are generally the most abundant singular food component in nature and are widely distributed (Onwuka, 2005). They are widely distributed in plants and are formed through the important process of photosynthesis from carbon dioxide and water catalyzed by the ultra- violet radiation from the sun (Okaka et al., 2006). In fact, they are the most abundant biomolecules on earth (Nelson and Cox, 2008).

Carbohydrates or saccharine are defined as polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketoses and their derivatives. They contain carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O2) with hydrogen and oxygen occuring in the ratio of 2:1 as in water (Igwenyi, 2008). They have the empirical formula (CH2O) n where n is > 3 with the word carbohydrate now taken to mean not only organic compound of this precise composition but also carbohydrate derivatives whose empirical formulae depart somehow from this basic pattern (Igwenyi, 2008).

Carbohydrates are energy-giving foods (Oselebe and Nwani, 2006). Certain carbohydrates (sugar and starch) are dietary staple food in most parts of the world and the oxidation of carbohydrates serves as the central energy – yielding pathway in most non photosynthesis cells (Nelson and Cox, 2008). Carbohydrates are classified into:
(i) Monosaccharides, examples of which are xylose, arabinose, glucose, galactose and fructose.

(ii) Oligosaccharides, occur when the hydroxyl group of one monosaccharide is condensed with the reducing end of another monosaccharide (two sugars when joined in this way produces, a disaccharide). If however a linear array of three to eight monosaccharide join in this manner an oligosaccharide is generated.

(iii) Polysaccharides, are grouped into two the structural and storage polysaccharides. Examples of structural polysaccharides include, cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin. They constitute the rigid, mechanical structures in plants, whereas the storage or nutrient polysaccharides (include, starch, glycogen) can easily be digested to simpler absorbable form for the release of energy (Onwuka, 2005). Other carbohydrate found in foods or are added to foods are important functionally as texture and flavor contributions (Okaka et al., 2006) or as thickeners (Igwenyi and Akubugwo, 2010). Polysaccharides and their derivatives found in seeds, plant exudates, seaweeds and microorganisms, collectively known as food gum, find useful applications in the food industry as viscosity modifiers, gelling agents and thickeners. These polysaccharides when used in foods become part of the dietary fibre component of diet (Okaka et al., 2006).

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To Place An Order For The Complete Project Material Pay N,5000 To

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Acct. Name - Uwadia Eyemeka
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Then Send a text of your names, the topic you paid for, a valid email address to 07036785443

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