Production Of wood Finish With Castor Oil As Plasticizer

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Production Of wood Finish With Castor Oil As Plasticizer

Paint is a general term used to describe a number of substances that consist of a pigment suspended in a liquid or paste vehicle such as oil or water which serves the purpose of decorating or protecting the substrate on which it is applied to.

Although, its primary purpose is protection of substrate to which it is applied, paint also provides decoration, levelling, fire and corrosion resistance.

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With a brush, a roller or spray gun paint is applied in a thin coat to various surfaces such as wood, metal, or stone (Stephannie, 2011).

Types of Paint

There are different types of paint which include:

Emulsion (Water Based) Paint

The terms cover all paints that use synthetic polymers which include acrylic, vinyl acrylic (PVA) styrene, acrylic etc as binders. For suitable purposes this has advantages in fast drying, low toxicity, low cost, easier application and easier cleaning of equipment among other factors (Ghisari, 2009).

Primer Paint

This is a preparatory coating put on material before applying the paint itself.  The primed surface ensures better adhesionof the paint thereby increasing the durability of the paint and providing improved protection for the painted surface. Suitable primers also may block and seal stains or hide a colour that is to be painted over (Morgans,1990).

Gloss Finish

Gloss is typical used on trim to emphasise detail and elegance and to show off wood work such as on door and furniture.  It provides a shinning surface and provides good protection from mixture and stains on walls. Its gloss does however emphasises imperfections on the walls and similar surfaces (Guruviah and Raigopalan,1966).


This type is formulated to give an especially hard, usually glossy finish. Some paint contains fine glass powder or metal flake instead of the colour pigments in standard oil-based paints. This is sometimes mixed with varnish or urethane to improve its shine and hardness (Nylen and Sunderland, 1965).

A Roof Coating

These varieties of coating are formulated such that the fluid sets as an elastic membrane that can stretch without harm. It provides UV protection to polyurethane foam and is widely used for roof restoration (Flick, 1989).

Insulative Paint

This is also refers to as insulating paint. It reduces the rate of thermal transfer through a surface it’s applied to. One type of formulation is based on the addition of hollow microsphere to any suitable type of paint (Wicks, Jones and Papps,1992).


Special paints are specific paint such as highly marking paint, automobile refinishing and high performance maintenance.

Paint fire-Retardation Paints

Fire resistive coatings provide protection for structural steel so that buildings don’t collapse in a time. They retard flame spread and penetration of heat through their sublimative-ablative and synergistic flame suppressing action.

On contact with flame or excessive heat, flame control in fire retardant coating decomposes and put up (intumesce) forming a thick, dense spongy foam layer that checks flame spread and retards heat penetration (Ahmad and Thakkar,1997).

Powder Coatings

Powder coatings are used by the paint industry usually for metal substrates. The powder is applied to the substrate and fused to a continues film by baking. The formulation of a powder coating is based on pulverizing solid components, resins, pigments, and a hardener (Parikh, 1997).

Paint Composition and Formulation


Pigments are insoluble fine particles size materials which confer on a paint its colour and opacity. The pigments are used in paint formulation to carry out one or more of the following tasks:

To provide colour

To provide hiding to the substrate and obliterate previous colours

To improves the strength of the paint film

To improve the adhesion of the paint film, reduce gloss and cost (Morgans, 1990).

In general the following properties of the pigments are important in selecting a pigment for any particular product:

Hiding Power.

Refractive Index.

Tinting Strength.

Light fastness.

Bleeding Characteristics.

Particle size and shape (Turner, 1988).

Classification of Pigments

The materials used to impart colour may either be pigments or dyestuffs. The difference between them is their relative solubility in the liquid media (solvent and binder) in which they are dispersed. Pigments which can be organic or inorganic in origin have been classified in a variety of ways such as colour, natural or synthetic, and by chemical types.

-Extender pigments are solid insoluble materials in paint medium but impart little or no opacity or colour to the film into which they are incorporated (Martens, 1964).


Binder (Film-Forming Component)

This is the second basic constituents of a paint which binds together the pigments particles and holds them on the surface. The common type of binders currently available to the paint industry for various applications includes: polyesters, alkyds, acrylics, vinyl, natural resins and oil.


Alkyd resins represent the single largest quantity of solvent-soluble resins produced for use in the surface coating industry. According to the oil or fatty acid content, alkyd resins are divided into three broad categories, vis:

Short oil (to 40%)

Medium oil (40 to 60%)

Long oil (more than 60%) alkyd resins


These are polymers obtained by reacting monomeric polycarboxylic acid and polyalcohol. They are practically free from fatty acid (oils) and have a much simpler structure than that of alkyds.


Acrylic resins are the most widely used polymers in paint and coating industry. The two principal forms of acrylics used in surface coating are the thermoplastic and thermosets.

Thermoplastics:  These form a film by evaporation of the solvent present in the coating formation.

Thermosets: These are polymers that cure at ambient or elevated temperature by reacting them with other components.They exhibit good resistance to hydrolysis and ultraviolet degradation which accounts for their outstanding durability. The demand for acrylic lacquer is declining due to VOC restriction.


Vinyl esters are usually used in water-borne coating in the form of copolymer dispersions. Typical vinyl esters are vinyl acetate, vinyl propanonate, vinyl laurate etc (Wicks, Jones and Pappas, 1992).


The solvents generally used in the paint industry may be divided into:

Hydrocarbon solvents:-These are the most commonly used solvent in paints to carry the pigments and binder. They are divided into aliphatic, naphthenic and aromatic.

Oxygenated solvents water: The advantage of water as a solvent is its availability, cheapness, lack of smell, non-toxicity and non-flammability (Turner, 1988).


Additives are substances that are added in small quantities to a paint to improve or modify certain properties of paint during its manufacture, storage, transport or application. The amount of additives in paint can be as little as 0.001% and seldom more than 5%. The average proportion of a single additive in a formulation is usually around 1.5% of the quantity of the paint formulation. They are classified according to their functions as follows:

Thickening Agents:-This group of additives determines the rheological properties of paint by increasing the viscosity (Turner, 1988).

Surface Active Agents:-This group consists of three types of additives: wetting and dispersing agents, anti-foam and adhesion promoters.

Wetting and dispersing agents are additives that belong to the group of surfactants. They consist of amphiphilic molecules which facilitates the very
important process for pigments and extenders dispersion and stabilization in paints and coatings.

Defoamers consist of water-insoluble hydrophobic, organic liquids such as minerals, vegetables, and animal oils as well as polydimethyl siloxane or mixtures there of.
Adhesion promoters are substance that improve adhesive strength of paints in terms of its resistance against mechanical separation from the painted surface eg silanes, silicones, titanium compounds zirconates etc.
(c.) Surface Coating Modifier:- These additives control the mechanical properties and optical properties e.g. gloss of coated surface. Example polysiloxane based and wax based additives are used to control those surface characteristics.

(d.) Levelling Agents and Coalescing Agents:-These additives are used to control flow and levelling of paint during and after application and the film is formed.

(e.) Catalytically Active Additives:- This group includes paint driers and other catalyst that are used to accelerate a chemical reaction occurring during the film-forming process.

(f.) Special-effect Additives:- This group of additives includes a number of other substances which are added to paint formulation, examples:

Anti-skinning agent
Light stabilizers
Corrosion inhibitors

Flame retardants
(Wicks, Jones and Pappas, 1992).

Paint Formulation

The weight ratio of the pigment and extender content to that of binder solid contents can be usefully correlated with the performance properties of a paint. In general, paint with a pigments ratio of greater than 4:1 are low gloss, suitable only for some interior applications. The concept of pigment volume concentration (PVC) is defined as the percentage of pigment volume in the total volume solid of the paint

PVC%=           volume of pigment x 100

Volume of pigment + volume of binder

In the above formula, since the amounts of pigments and the binder are on the volume basis, two paints can have an identical pigment-binder (weight%) ratio, but very different PVC values, simply by using pigment of different density (Bramley, Christopher and Sinjin).

Paint Qualities and Quality Control

Paint quality is measured on two principal bases;

The paint characteristics.
Its performance.
The key paint characteristics used as a basis for determining paint quality are consistency, fines of grind, colour hiding power, brush ability, durability, drying time, levelling, and gloss.

The quality of the materials used and the conditions of manufacture create quality in paint.

Formulation is the selection of the raw materials and establishments of the manufacturing conditions in paint process (Berendsen, 1989). Environmental Regulation Agencies had advised paint industries to reduce solvent emission in their paint products to check-mate air pollution (Needs, Caldwell and Mill, 1995).

This is because conventional solvents in paints could evaporate into the air during the drying process to release the green house gases that could cause global warming and are detrimental to health (Sunyer, 2001).


Plasticizers are inverted polymeric materials with high boiling point and function by embedding themselves between the paint components to enhance their cross-linkage (Daniel, 2007).

These are dispersants or additive that could increase the plasticity, flexibility, compatibility, wash-ability and durability of industrial paint (wood finished) or gloss paints in general (Wollensak,Spoerl Seiler, 2003).

Studies have shown that plasticizers have been used to improve the strength of gloss-fiber reinforced plastic motor cases, concrete clays and related products. (Morgan, 1971).

An un-plasticized surface coat results in loss of flexibility, brittle and cracking within a short period of time (Oguniyi, 2006).

Serious negligible damages had been observed as it concerns maximum average loss in burst strength in industrial paint without plasticizers than those with plasticizers (Ibemesi and Attah, 1990).

Researchers have compared other drying oils and proved castor oil good as a  plasticizer in the production of coatings (ASTM, 2010).

Castor oil is a mixture of triglycerides of long chain carboxylic acids. Some of the  carboxylic acids found in castor Oil;

CH3 CH2CH = CH CH2 CH = CH CH2 CH = CH (CH2)7 CO2H

Linolenic Acid

(cis, cis, cis-9, 12, 15-octadecatrienoic acid. C18H30O2)
CH3 (CH2)4 CH = CH CH2 CH = CH (CH2)7 COOH

Linoleic Acid

(cis, cis- 9, 12-octadienoic acid. C18H32O2)

CH3 (CH2)7 CH = CH (CH2)7COOH

Oleic acid

(cis- 9 – octadeconoic acid. C18 H24 O2)

Other acid components include recinoleic acids

The drying process is a complex one of polymerization, probably catalysed by peroxide as described by Farmer in (1912).

The theory is that drying progresses as follows:

Double bonds are oxidized by atmospheric oxygen to give hydroperoxy group.

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