Perception of Adolescent Towards the Introduction of Sex Education

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Perception of Adolescent Towards the Introduction of Sex Education

Sex education is a lifelong process of acquiring information on sex and forming attitudes, values and beliefs. It involves sexual development, sexual and reproductive health, interpersonal relationships, affection and intimacy (Inyang and Inyang, 2015).
The knowledge of sex education has not been comprehended by the society. No wonder recently, most Magazines, journals, periodicals and Newspapers often carry sensational stories of teenage sex escapades, pregnancies, sexually transmitted infections like gonorrhea, syphilis and herpes (Fawole, 2011).

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Most recently, but more dangerous are the reported cases of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV-AIDs) while the reports of expulsion of pregnant students by school authorities were also common (Magic, 2010).
Remarkably, Ajala (2011) claimed that, nearly one million adolescents aged 15-19 years become pregnant in the United States of America yearly and about 30,000 pregnancies occur out of wedlock and are unplanned. Although, up to date statistics were not available about the situation in Nigeria, there is no doubt that hundreds of Nigerian teenage girls roam about the streets of Nigeria’s urban cities offering themselves to various men for economic gains. These sex escapades often result in pregnancies, venereal diseases and at some other times fetal abortion.

The causes of this entire social phenomenon are inadequate sex education. Mbelu (2011), was of the opinion that victims are mainly teenagers from the secondary schools which are scattered throughout the nooks and crannies of the country Adewole (2013) pointed out that school girls and boys in the cities had been known to commit horrible acts in their bid to get rid of pregnancies. The author contended that their activities had always been influenced by what they had seen on television and cinema screens or read about on the pages of romance or pornographic materials.
Sex education in schools is regarded as an effective way to increase young people’s understanding of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV infection, abortion, infertility and to overcome sexual harassment. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) sexuality encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Sexuality is often broadly defined as the social construction of a biological drive (WHO, 2008) which often deals with issues such as whom one has sex with, in what ways, why, under what circumstances and with what outcomes a person engages in sex (NACC, 2010). Thus, sexuality pertains to the totality of being human – being a female or male – and this suggests a multidimensional perspective of the concept of sexuality which is shaped by biological, psychological, economic, political, social, cultural and religious factors operating within a particular culture in each society.

According to Frimpong (2010), sex education is “the systematic attempt to promote the healthy awareness in the individual on matters of his/her sexual development, functioning, behavior and attitudes through direct teaching”. Sexuality education is therefore, a process of learning about how an individual can be comfortable about all aspects of being human. Sexuality education can also be described as a process of providing information, skills and services that enable persons adopt safe sexual behaviours including abstinence, non-penetrative sex such as hugging, holding hands as well as correct and consistent use of condoms. Sexually healthy behaviours also include seeking care from trained health workers during incidence of any reproductive morbidity such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs), unplanned pregnancy and infertility (Adewole, 2013).
A range of research evidences have indicated that school – based sex education has the potential to prevent unplanned pregnancy and to promote positive sexual health at the individual, family and community or health system level. In the past decades, many school-based programmes have been designed for the sole purpose of delaying the initiation of sexual activity. There seems to be a growing consensus that schools can play an important role in providing youth with a knowledge base which may allow them to make informed decisions and help them shape a healthy lifestyle (Ladipo, 2010).
Historically, and in fact up till the present time the issue of sex education has been a controversy as parents do not seem to agree as to how, when and what to teach children regarding sex education. The attitude of parents towards the teaching of sex education in school has been a matter of serious concern and it is affecting the dissemination of vital information which has led to the spread of sexually transmitted infections especially HIV and AIDS as well as unwanted pregnancy (Collins, 2010).
The recognition of the impending danger to adolescent as well as the risk in adolescents reproductive health who are prone to unplanned sex, unwanted pregnancy, unsafe abortion, sexual coercion, sexual violence, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and even Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) owing to lack of information or misinformation about the implications of their reproductive behavior and health risks especially from under-age sexual practices and other anti-social practices prompted the review of the manner in which sexuality education is conducted. Therefore, it is upon this basis that this study is aimed at assessing the perspective of adolescents towards the introduction of sex education in Ohabiam Secondary School Aba, Abia State.

Statement of the Problem
Adolescents are the future and so they require proper guidance that will propel them into responsible productive adults useful to themselves and their nations. Adolescence is a remarkable period characterised by the quest for experimentations with drugs, alcohol and sexual activity saddled with numerous life threatening adverse effects (Inyang and Inyang, 2015). Ladipo (2010) noted that culture, parental guidance and moral values inculcated into adolescents and young adults in mission schools acted as restraint in sexual matters.
The rapid increasing interaction between different cultures, urbanization and with majority of young people attending institution of higher learning, there is a rapid change in social lifestyles which in turn encourages more liberal attitudes towards sexuality among all ages especially the adolescents and young adults. Also with government owned schools higher in number, there is a general lack of emphasis on moral teaching, even in some mission schools. Moreover, the rapid rising of working mother, single parent households, preoccupation of parents with economic gains especially the mother’s illiteracy contribute to the communication gap as they leave little time to guide children through the long transition years of adolescence.

There is a general misconception that sex information would result in promiscuity (Okoli, 2015). This has not been proven. World Health Organization’s view (2009) is that ignorance (no knowledge) of sexual matters is the cause of sexual misadven-ture. The clinical experiences of most psychotherapists and marriage counselors lend support to this view points (Magic, 2010). The role that the teaching of sex education could play in schools should not be overlooked. It is perhaps in realization of this that school, health related agencies, non-governmental organizations and development partners have been making efforts to educate people particularly the youths about the ravaging effects and consequences of many sexually laden diseases on rampage. However, despite the concerted efforts made by these various bodies, (W.H.O., UNICEF, WARAPA., etc) in health related areas, it has failed to arrest this ugly situation /vices related to sexual behaviours which are still common among secondary school students.
In Nigeria, complicated abortion, sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS, sexual coercion, unplanned and unwanted sexual activity and unwanted pregnancies, drop outs from schools and homelessness abound and are very common features with the adolescents. Odu and Akande (2015) noted that premarital and extramarital sex continues to be on widespread and increase in every dimension. The youths in Nigeria regardless of HIV/AIDS threat are reported having broad sexual network, multiple concurrent sexual partners and unprotected sex. This ugly situation can be attributed to ignorance of sexual information and the implications of premarital sexual activities. Most Nigerian adolescents do not receive correct sexual information while some are ignorant. They also might not be aware that engaging in premarital sexual activities can terminate their educational career, hold back their potentials and also affect the nation negatively. The intense outcome associated with adolescent sexual activity motivated the researcher to ascertain the perception of adolescents towards the introduction of sex education in Ohabiam Secondary School Aba, Abia State.

Objectives of the Study
The main purpose of this study was to find out the perception of adolescents towards the introduction of sex education in Ohabiam Secondary School Aba Abia State. Specifically, this study was designed to:
1. Determine if introduction of sex education prompt adolescents to indulge in the act of risky sexual behaviour;
2. Ascertain the extent to which introduction of sex education promotes safer sex practices among adolescents of Ohabiam secondary school Aba Abia State;
3. Investigate parental influence on the perception of adolescents towards introduction of sex education in Ohabiam secondary school Aba Abia State.
4. Assess the influence of religion on adolescent perspective towards sex education in Ohabiam secondary school Aba Abia State.

Significance of the Study
Expectedly the outcome of this study will be significant in the following respects:
• Students/Youths: The findings of this study will be used to emphasize the importance of sex education among students/youths thereby creating awareness and increasing structured knowledge which would modify behaviours. The result will also help to plan sex education, assess the related health problems resulting from lack of knowledge about sexuality in our secondary school so that education and therapy programmes can be planned and implemented.

• Teachers: The findings of this study may be useful to teachers. The information adolescents possess about sex education and their misconceptions, would enable teachers to correct them. Information on perception of risk of infection with sexually transmitted infections and attitude towards safer sex practices would enable teachers to design appropriate ways of teaching adolescents safer sex practices and how to avoid sexual exploitation thus reducing their risk of been infected.

• Expose the parents to the reality that, they are partners in progress with the teachers, the school and the society at large in the effort to avert and completely curb the menace of sexual abuse, and sexually related diseases in the society.

• Curriculum Planner and Health Planner: The analysis of the result of this study would be of immense benefit to curriculum planners and other health planners to inculcate sex education into our school curriculum (primary, secondary and tertiary institutions). This is because, this study would help to appraise what they know or how much they know, what misconceptions they have and the sources of these misconceptions.

• Future Researchers: This study will serve as a reference and guide for future researchers who will be conducting a study on stress management among students.

• To encourage non governmental organizations to participate in the education of the youth in the area of sex education in secondary schools.

• The findings may help adolescents’ to correct their misconceptions about sex and sexually transmitted infections. They may know what may contribute to risk of infection; learn how to avoid sexual exploitation while at the same time, being able to have sexual relations in future.

• The findings may help the government in conjunction with HIV/AIDS Information, Education Campaign programme developers such as National Aids Control Agency to improve the HIV/AIDS education awareness campaigns to reach and better suit the needs of the adolescents both in the urban and rural settings. It may be able to formulate policies that ensure that the people are not exploited.

Research Questions
The following research questions are formulated to guide this study:
1. To what extent does introduction of sex education affect the practice of risky sexual behaviour by adolescents in Ohabiam secondary school Aba Abia State?

2. Does introduction of sex education promote safer sex practices among adolescents of Ohabiam secondary school Aba Abia State?

3. Does parental influence significantly affect adolescents’ perception towards introduction of sex education in Ohabiam secondary school Aba Abia State?

4. Is there any significant influence of religion on adolescents’ perspective towards sex education in Ohabiam secondary school Aba Abia State?

Hypotheses of the Study
Abstracting from the research objectives and research questions, the hypotheses of the study are stated as follows:
1: Introduction of sex education do not significantly affect adolescents chances of indulging in risky sexual behaviour in Ohabiam secondary school Aba Abia State.

2: Introduction of sex education do not significantly promote safer sex practices among adolescents of Ohabiam secondary school Aba Abia State.

3: Parental influence does not significantly affect adolescents’ perception towards introduction of sex education in Ohabiam secondary school Aba Abia State?

4: There is no significant influence of religion on adolescent perspective of sex education among adolescents of Ohabiam secondary school Aba Abia State.

Scope of Study
The study focused on the perception of adolescents towards the introduction of sex education in Ohabiam secondary school Aba Abia State. It is confined to determining the student’s knowledge about sex education, the perception of students towards introduction of sex education in their school and the perception of students towards sex education in relation to information given by parents, teachers and other media and the influence of gender on the perception of students towards sex education.

Operational Definition of Terms
For the purpose of this study, the following terms will be defined as follows:

Perception: Insight or understanding of the adolescents in Ohabiam Secondary School Aba Abia state about introduction of sex education in school curriculum.

Adolescents: Refers to teenagers, youths between the age of 10-24 years.
Sex Education: This is a process by which information is given or imparted to a group of adolescents, young adults in Ohabiam Secondary School Aba Abia State on basis of the development of growth, system and changes that occur from adolescence through all stages of adulthood.
Sex: This is the sum of characteristics that distinguish organism (human being) on the basis of their reproductive function into male or females.
Education: This is the process of helping adolescents, youth, and adults in Ohabiam Secondary School to discover, develop and make use of their innate potentials and capabilities for a successful living in their society.
Perception of risk of infection: Extent to which an individual believes that he can be infected with a disease, in this case sexual infections like HIV/AIDS.
Safer sex practices: For the purposes of this study, the term “safer sex” is used to refer to adopted sexual behaviours recommended by health educators to reduce the risk of HIV and STD transmission. It is mainly based on abstinence from sex, being faithful to one partner and the use of condoms to avoid the exchange of body fluids during sexual intercourse. The term “safer sex” is used in this study as it could be debated whether sex could ever be regarded as “safe” with the ever-present possibility of contracting HIV/AIDS even with a single sex partner (who might be HIV positive without knowing it) and with the use of condoms (which could break, slip or be used incorrectly).
Abstinence-only sex education: This curriculum promotes abstinence from all sexual activity, as the only option for unmarried people. It rarely provides education on sexual and reproductive health education, particularly regarding birth control, sexually transmitted infections, and safe sex practices. It focuses on the importance of marriage and values.
Comprehensive Sexuality Education: This curriculum addresses abstinence as the best practice for avoiding unintended pregnancy and STDs, but incorporates age-appropriate, medically accurate education on a broad set of topics related to sexuality including human development, relationships, decision-making, abstinence, contraception, and disease prevention. It also provides students with opportunities for developing skills such as interpersonal and communication skills and helps students explore their own values and goals, as well as options.

This chapter reviewed relevant and related literature about the perceptions of students towards sex education and its implications thereof. Risk perception and attitude towards safer sex practices were also discussed. Additionally, the literature review is presented under the following subheadings:
• Theoretical/Conceptual Framework
• Empirical study

Theoretical Review
Adunola (2010) perceived sex education solely as education in the machining of sexual act. Adunola (2010) further described sex education as sinister campaign to create an increasing and dangerous obsession with sex in the minds of the adolescents. Egbuna (2010) argued that sex education is not simple physiology of the system, nor is it the process of telling the youth the facts of life and cautioning them about possible unpleasant out-come of premarital experimentation. It is not giving information about reproduction; describing the disease transmitted sexually and warning the embarrassment of illegitimate pregnancy and the shame of being discovered rather, sex education is the creation of satisfying interpersonal relationships rather than simply the exercise of sex and it would involve the whole population and the total life span, going far beyond genital sex expression, love and affection. He explained further that sex education encompasses more than just the mere teaching of this subject in isolation.
Sex education indeed rather should be a holistic learning intended towards improving the growth of the young. Thus sex education could be viewed in the same line with Njoku (2013) as an ecologic ethical approach involving the biological, psychological, social and ethnical dimensions of sexual attitude standards, values and behaviors.

Adegboyga and Fabiyi (2012) were of the opinion that the teaching of sex education should be institutionalized at the secondary school level. Their recommendations according to them were based on the fact that there was a high involvement of adolescents in sexual activities and that this development had made them much more vulnerable HIV/AIDS. Fabiyi (2012) contended that recommendation by experts may not be enough. Sex education according to him must be accepted by students and parents them-selves as an appropriate subject to be taught in schools if a successful sex education programme is to be introduced in secondary schools. Oikeh (2009) blamed emotional rather than logical approaches to the evaluation of the need for the teaching of sex education, for the controversy that has inundated the institutionalization of the programme in most parts of the world.
Rosen, Murray and Moreland (2014) opined that sexuality education aims to achieve a range of outcomes, some of which apply to sexually active youth and some to those not yet having sex. They identified the objectives of Sexuality Education Programs in schools to include:
• Reduced sexual activity (including postponing age at first intercourse and promoting abstinence);
• Reduced number of sexual partners;
• Increased contraceptive use, especially use of condoms among youth who are sexually active for both pregnancy prevention and prevention of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs);
• Lower rates of child marriage;
• Lower rates of early, unwanted pregnancy and resulting abortions;
• Lower rates of infection of HIV/AIDS and other STIs; and
• Improved nutritional status.

Sexuality education programs are part of a suite of proven interventions that include activities such as peer education, mass media, social marketing, youth-friendly services, and policy dialogue and advocacy. School and livelihood opportunities complement and reinforce these approaches.
Howell (2012) identified two forms of sex education to be comprehensive sex education and Abstinence – only sex education. Abstinence-only sex education entails teenagers to be sexually abstinent or avoid sex until marriage and does not provide information about contraception while comprehensive sex education covers abstinence as a positive choice but also teaches about contraception and avoidance of sexually transmitted infections when sexually active. It also addresses age appropriate for sex education, medically accurate information about contraception. Comprehensive sex education is also developmentally appropriate, introducing information on relationships, decision-making, assertiveness and skill-building to resist social/peer pressure, depending on grade-level.
Comprehensive sexuality education is critical to young people’s ability to make healthy and informed sexual decisions. It provides accurate information about human sexual reproduction and sexual health; presents opportunities to explore and understand one’s own values regarding sexuality; develops skills to communicate and relate to others in healthy, satisfying, meaningful ways and supports the ability to make sexual decisions with integrity to one’s self and respect for others.

According to Macary (2015), eight essential components of comprehensive sexuality education include:

Gender:- Difference between gender and sex; exploring gender roles and attributes; understanding perceptions of masculinity and femininity within the family and across the life cycle; society’s changing norms and values; manifestations and consequences of gender bias, stereotypes and inequality (including self-stigmatization).
Sexual and Reproductive Health and HIV:- Sexuality and the life cycle (ie puberty, menopause, stigma, sexual problems); anatomy; reproductive process; how to use condoms; other forms of contraception (including emergency contraception); pregnancy options and information, legal and safe abortion; unsafe abortion; understanding sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV, including transmission and symptoms; HIV and STI prevention treatment, care and support; HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT); antiretroviral therapy and living with HIV; prevention of mother to child transmission; injecting drug use and HIV; virginity; abstinence, faithfulness; sexual response; social expectations; self-esteem and empowerment; respect for the body; myths and stereotypes.
Sexual Rights and Sexual Citizenship:- Knowledge of international human rights and national policies, laws and structures that relate to people’s sexuality; rights-based approach to sexual and reproductive health (SRH); social, cultural and ethical barriers to exercising SRH rights; understanding that sexuality and culture are diverse and dynamic; available services and resources and how to access them; participation; practices and norms; different sexual identities; advocacy, choice, protection; negotiation skills; consent and the right to have sex only when you are ready; the right to freely express and explore one’s sexuality in a safe, healthy and pleasurable way.

Pleasure:- Being positive about young people’s sexuality; understanding that sex should be enjoyable and not forced; that it is much more than just sexual intercourse; sexuality as part of everybody’s life; the biology and emotions behind the human sexual response; gender and pleasure, sexual well-being; safer sex practices and pleasure; masturbation, love, lust and relationship; interpersonal communication; the diversity of sexuality; the first sexual experience; consent; alcohol and drugs and the implications of their use; addressing stigma associated with pleasure.

Violence:- Exploring the various types of violence towards men and women and how they manifest, particularly gender-based violence; non-consensual sex and understanding what is unacceptable, rights and laws; support options available and seeking help; community norms (power, gender) and myths; prevention, including personal safety plans; self defense techniques; understanding the dynamics of victims and abusers; appropriate referral mechanisms for survivors; preventing the victim from becoming a perpetrator; men/boys as both perpetrators and allies in violence prevention.

Diversity:- Recognizing and understanding the range of diversity in our lives (eg. faith, culture, ethnicity, socio-economic status, ability/disability, HIV status and sexual orientation); a positive view of diversity; recognizing discrimination, its damaging effects and being able to deal with it; developing a belief in equality; supporting young people to move beyond just tolerance.

Relationships:- Different types of relationships (eg. family, friends, sexual, romantic etc); relationships are constantly changing; emotions, intimacy (emotional and physical); rights and responsibilities, power dynamics; recognizing healthy and unhealthy or coercive relationships; communication, trust and honesty in relationships; peer pressure and social norms; that love and sex are not the same.

Fertility awareness:- Fertility awareness refer to the observation and interpretation of cervical mucus, often called virginal discharge. A woman’s cervical –mucus pattern indicates the time of ovulation and differentiates the fertile and infertile phases of the menstrual cycle from each other. Fertility awareness enables a woman to know when pregnancy can and cannot occur on a daily basis during each menstrual cycle. There has been, to date, almost no exploration of the appropriateness of fertility awareness instruction for adolescents.

Theories of Sex Education
Theory of Reasoned Action
This theory was developed by Martin Fishbein and Icek Ajzen in 1980 and later revised by Ajzen (2010). The major assumption in the theory is that people are usually rational and make predictable use of information available to them. In this case, adolescents equipped with knowledge of sex education particularly, sexually transmitted infection, the transmission mechanism and prevention would consider consequences or risks of health related behaviour before engaging in them.

Attitudes are people’s feelings about themselves performing a behavioral act. The model argues that, attitudes are determined by the most prominent beliefs about what would happen as a consequence of what has been done. It is only the most easily remembered consequences that really affect attitudes. For instance, if a person’s first thought when he ‘sees’ someone engage in unprotected sex is ‘sex without a condom is thrilling’ then this is the belief that will determine his attitude about using a condom. It does not matter so much that he also believes such unprotected sex exposes him to infections. That belief may not come to mind easily and the person may believe it is ‘other people’ who will get infected if they engage in unprotected sex.
Intentions to engage in or not to engage in certain behaviour are a function of privately held attitudes toward the particular behaviour and socially determined subjective norms that represent a person’s belief that others think that he/she should behave in a certain way. The theory predicts that a person is most likely to do something when he or she feels good about doing it and feels social pressure to do it. On the other hand, subjective norms are the person’s perceptions of social influence about performing the behaviour. For example, if a student feels that most adolescents engage in unprotected sex, then he/she will perceive that there is a norm that favours such a practice. This belief will therefore affect the pupils’ attitude toward abstinence negatively.

Subjective norms are affected by pressure from significant others. If someone feels that any of the people he/she is motivated to please, for example, his/her parent or teacher may not want them to engage in sex before marriage, then the opinions of these others will have an impact on perceptions of social pressure to do so. This affects one’s attitude. However, intentions towards a health related behaviour does not necessarily guarantee action.
Health education programmes on HIV/AIDS are based on the premises of the theory of reasoned action by Ajzen (2010). The assumption is that individual reason determines human action involving indulgence or restraint when faced with a threat to their health (Aggletone, Homans and Mossa, 2012). The action taken depends on the extent to which one believes he/she can fall prey to a disease, the severity of the disease, degree of exposure to information about the disease and the extent to which an individual believes that a preventive action has more rewards than costs. HIV/AIDS health education programmes have been based on these components (WHO, 2008).

Theory of Optimistic Bias
It was developed by Weinstein in 1984 from a study he carried out which established the existence of a pervasive bias in people’s judgment about their susceptibility to illness. Individuals generally think that they are less likely than the average person to experience health problems. He states that when people who hold this kind of orientation are asked to evaluate their own chances of developing certain diseases compared to others of the same sex, they usually evaluate their own risks to be significantly lower than that of others. He notes that the bias appears to emerge from limitations of cognitive processing of risk factors by the individual concerned. Additionally, it appears to occur for those risks which are perceived to be preventable and are infrequent with the individual having little experience (Moore and Rosenthal, 2014).
Bandura’s Social Learning Theory
Bandura’s social learning theory holds that people learn more from one another through observation, imitation and modelling. According to Bandura (2010), people observe others behaviours, attitudes and outcomes of those behaviours. Modelling effects produce learning mainly through their informative function. If people observe positive desired outcomes in the observed behaviour, they are more likely to model, imitate, and adopt the behaviour themselves. This theory is used in this study to explain the perception of adolescent towards the introduction of sex education and how it impacts their behaviour. In this case it assumes that in the application of social learning theory through peer education extra-curricular programmes, media-television and radio, and other unsystematic means, the students are encouraged to observe and imitate the behaviour of their peer educators and others, see positive behaviour modelled and practiced, increase their own capability and confidence and implement new skills with support from the environment.

The theory concluded that aggressive behavior may be learned through observation. Four characteristics must be present in order for social learning to take place; the person must be attending to the stimuli, they need to retain the information of which they were paying attention to, mental reproduction of the image should take place, and lastly, the individual needs to have motivation and a good reason to imitate or demonstrate what they have learned (Bandura, Ross, and Ross, 2015).
Reciprocal determinism, also developed by Bandura (2010), theorizes that a person’s behavior is conditioned by ones personal factors, like their cognition, in conjunction with their environment. In addition he stressed television acted as a persuader for modeling violent behaviour. Therefore it is possible that promiscuous sexual behavior in adolescents may be instigated through representations they interpret from the media. Social Learning Theory (SLT) has been applied to sexuality education as well as many other areas of health education, including tobacco use prevention, substance abuse prevention and violence prevention.
Since SLT aims to change behavior in participants, it is a good fit for prevention-based sexuality programs — for example, those that aim to prevent pregnancy by preventing sexual involvement or increasing condom use — as opposed to more comprehensive family life programs. SLT is a particularly good fit for pregnancy, STI and HIV prevention programs because sexual behavior is influenced by personal knowledge, skills, attitudes, interpersonal relationships, and environmental influences. All of these factors are addressed in SLT. Secondly, teens receive few, if any, positive models for healthy sexual behavior. Modeling positive and healthy sexuality-related behavior to youth is extremely important. Because sexual behaviors often happen in private settings, much of what youth observe modeled about sex takes place on TV and in movies, popular music and magazines. The majority of this modeled behavior — early sexual activity, violence combined with sex, no mention of protection, no discussions about risks — is counter to what family life educators are trying to teach youths.
Thirdly, it provides youth with behavioral skills practice. Youth actually practice the skills — for example, saying “no” to pressure to have sex, or putting on a condom — that they will use in their real lives. In the area of sexuality, teens often do not get a chance to “practice” these prevention skills before they are in the actual situations where they need them. Teaching youth specific behavioral skills is crucial in an effective prevention program. Unfortunately, many sexuality programs over emphasize cognitive learning and fail to address the behavioral aspects of becoming and staying sexually healthy.

Empirical Review

The Implication of Introduction of Sex Education on Adolescents Risky Sexual Behaviour;
Inyang and Inyang (2015) saw in their study that the knowledge of abstinence-only sexual education and preparedness for practice as an effective tool for promotion of sexual health among Nigerian secondary school adolescents. An analytic descriptive survey design was used for the study. The research population comprised of all public secondary schools in three southern geopolitical zones of the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 2020 senior secondary school (SS1-SS3) students as sample for the study. A partially self-designed and partially adapted questionnaire was used in eliciting information from respondents. Hypotheses were formulated and tested. Frequency counts, percentage and Pearson Product Moment Correlation were used in analyzing data. A greater proportion of secondary school adolescents in this study lacked knowledge of sexual education. About 80% of the respondents could not define sexual education. The general perspective on abstinence-only sexual education was negative, as revealed by the larger number of respondents who demonstrated unwillingness to practice abstinence-only sexual education. Specifically, of those who responded in favour of abstinence-only sexual education, the youngest group of adolescents (11-13 years) and the male respondents were more likely to accept this type of education than the other groups. Poor knowledge of sexual education could be responsible for unwillingness to practice abstinence-only sexual education. They suggested that Sexual education should be introduced into the secondary school curriculum and taught by well-prepared teachers to enable an informed decision on practice

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