Multiple Regression Analysis of Low Birth Weight of Children on Some Risk Factors

Multiple Regression Analysis of Low Birth Weight of Children on Some Risk Factors

Birth weight is the first weight of the baby taken just after he or she is born (Within 15 mins-24hrs of delivery). A low birth weight is less than 2.5kg or 2500g. A high birth weight is from 4kg and above.

Birth weight is a major factor in determining child survival of the future physical growth and mental development.
0ne of the issues of birth outcomes is low birth weight.

LOW BIRTH WEIGHT:
This is defined as weight at birth less than 2.5kg. Low birth weight (LBW) is one of the major predictors of neonatal and prenatal morbidity and mortality both in developed and developing countries. Low birth weight is a major factor contributing towards high infant mortality in developing countries.
Low birth weight is mostly common in developing countries where the burden of malnutrition and infectious diseases are heavy, and the incidence is estimated to be more than twice that of developed countries. The incidence of birth weight is high in our region compared to other Regions.

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY.
The cohort of LBW (birth weight less than 2.5kg) infants is likely to reflect three effects of the explanatory variables, namely: The Mother’s age, Parity and The Mother’s weight. when the mother is small, there is a probability of her, having a small Foetus. She would have infra uterine growth restriction.
When the mother weighs less than average and has prim porous or multi porous, the birth weight is affected.

The incidence of low birth weight in a population is defined as the percentage of live births that weigh less than 2500g out of the total of live births during the same time period. The low birth weight incidence rate therefore is:
The number of live births < 2.5kg x 100

Total number of live births. 1
Birth weight is affected to a great extent by the mother’s own foetal growth and her duct from birth to pregnancy, and thus the body composition at conception. Mothers in deprived socio-economic conditions frequently have low birth weight infant. In those settings, the infants’ low birth weight items primarily from the mother’s poor nutrition and health, over a long period of time, including during pregnancy, the high
prevalence of specific and non-specific infections or from pregnancy complications under pinned by poverty increase the rate at which low birth weight occur.
Physically demanding work during pregnancy, also contribute to poor fetal growth.
For the same gestational age, girls weigh less than boys, first born infants are higher than subsequent infants and twins weigh less than singleton.
Birth weight is affected to a great extent by the mother’s own foetal growth and her diet from birth to pregnancy and thus her body composition at conception. Women, who are 2-5 short in stature, women who are living at high attitudes and very young women have smaller babies.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
The issue of low birth weight and factors influencing it has not received the much needed attention. This should not be the case. Low birth weight is a strong predictor of high birth defect and infant mortality rates, individual baby’s survival and a person’s Personality. The high rate of low birth weight in this region is a major problem.

It is therefore imperative to identify risk factors of low birth weight in order to come up with feasible intervention strategies to minimize the problem. Therefore, Multiple Regression Analysis is used to determine this by the aid of IBM SPSS VERSION 20.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
1. We wish to identify the risk factor associated with probability of giving birth to low birth weight using multiple regression analysis.
2. To fit in the regression model by the use of multiple regression modelling.
3. To calculate confidence interval and R2 as we go into analysis
4. To predict of low birth weight after the analysis.

FACTORS OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT
These include the following:
1.Poor nutrition of the Mother during pregnancy.
2.Prevalence of infections.
3.Pregnancy complications
4.Stress especially in physical work
5.Sex of the baby.
6.Parity.
7.weight of the Mother.
8.Age of the Mother.
9.Multiple birth.
10.Height of the Mother.

THE FACTORS OF CONSIDERATION FOR THE STUDY ARE:
1. The Mother’s age
2. Parity (number of children or pregnancy or delivery before the last birth)
3. The Mother’s weight.

THE SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY.
The data used for my case study was collected from the Mother of Christ Specialist Hospital, Enugu in Enugu State. The data was based on the records of the live birth weight of babies within 24 hours of delivery with the information specifically on their mother’s age, parity and weight.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1. Awareness is being created.
2. Cautiousness and accuracy are being reminded of the medical personnel as they do the scaling.
3 The rate at which each of the factors contributes to the effect is determined or obtained.
4 Wrong impressions are eliminated by confirming the contributing factors.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS:
These include:
1. Is there a significant relationship between the following variables:
Low birth weight and Mother’s age?
Low birth birth weight and Parity?
Low birth weight and the Mother’s weight?
2..Which of the factors contributes most to the low birth weight of a child?

HYPOTHESIS TESTING
H0: There is no significant relationship between Low birth weight and Mother’s Age, Parity and Mother’s weight
H1: At least one of the variables has a significant relationship with the Low birth weight.

HO: None of the variables has the greatest contribution to the Low birth weight.

H1:At least one of the variables has the highest contribution to the Low birth weight.

 

CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Low birth weight has costs not only to the individual and family but also to the society. In the short-run low birth weight babies has faced increased mortality risks and larger health cost. Berkhauer et al. (1995) estimated that, 35% of all health care spending on new born children in the United States is related to low birth weight Children who make up just under 8% of babies. Each additional gram costs 6 to 10 pounds (Joyce, 1999) or up to 20 pounds.
On an individual basis, low birth weight is an important predictor of newborn health and survival and is associated with higher risk of infant and childhood mortality.(Orleans, et 1999).

Almond et al. (2005).In additional health care, Low birth is also associated with reduced child development .
Prenatal statistics for by Behrman 1990 noted that there were estimate of 2703 Low Birth Weight in Zorro of all birth showing an increment in low birth weight.

The age at child birth has been explored as an important determinant of maternal and infant health across a wide range of contexts.
Chen et al (2009) showed that infants born to teenagers had a higher risk of “preterm delivery” low birth weight and neonatal mortality.
Mukhopadhyay et al. 2010, found that women with younger ages (teenagers) were associated with low birth weight. More than Twenty million infant worldwide repressing 15.5% of all births are born with low birth weight. 95.6% of them are in developing countries. The level of low birth weight in developing countries (16.5%) is more than double, the level in developed regions (17%). Low birth weight levels in sub-Saharan Africa are around 15% central and South Africa have an average much lower rates (10%).

Gissler et al 1999, who confirmed that parity is a risk factor on birth weight found that low weight was mainly found among older primparous women.
The comprehensive review of the literature on the long-term development outcomes of low birth infants by Hack (2002) et al, suggests that “for most low birth weight children, social risk factors have a far greater effect on long-term cognitive outcomes than do biological risk factors.

Indeed, there is a growing body of research investigating the relationship between outcomes and child development outcome. In a study of very low birth weight, children who were 8-10 yrs. old, (Brooks,G. et al,1993) examined a composite of health and development outcomes including cognitive scores. The result showed that very low birth weight children were more likely to experience multiple cognitive behavioural and health problems.

A greater incidence of developmental problems related to school achievement in the area of attention deficit was also found among 6 years old children who were born with low birth weight compared to normal weight children (Breslau, 1996)” Data from the 1981 national health interview survey-child Health supplement revealed a significantly high incidence of school differently among very low birth weight children between the ages of 4 & 18 years (MC Cormick 1995).

For live birth, birth weight should preferably be measured within the first hour of life before significant postnatal weight loss has occurred. At the population level, the proportion of infants with a low birth weight is an indicator of a multifaceted public-health problem that includes long-term maternal malnutrition, ill health, hard work and poor health care in pregnancy.

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