Mineral Analysis of Baphia Nitida Leaves

Mineral Analysis of Baphia Nitida Leaves

Plants containing naturally and potentially active ingredients used to cure disease or relieve pain are called medicinal plants (Dresser et al., 2014). Medicinal plants have been identified and used throughout human history. Plants make many chemical compounds that are for biological functions, including defense against insects, fungi and herbivorous mammals. At least 12,000 such compounds have been isolated far; a number estimated to be less than 10% of the total. Chemical compounds in plants mediate their effect on the human body through processes identical to those already will understood for the chemical compounds in conventional drugs; thus, herbal medicines do not differ greatly from conventional drugs in terms of how they work.

This enables herbal medicines to have beneficial pharmacology, but also gives them the same potentials as conventional pharmaceutical drugs to cause harmful side effect. Moreover, plant material comes with a variety of compounds which may have undesired effects, though these can be reduced by processing. Plants are the natural and most easy accessible source of therapeutically active biological principles, thus there is a need to screen out plant for development of new drugs. For this purpose plants have been assayed widely but still large numbers of them have not arrived to the conventional health care system. Hence, Baphia nitida plant could be considered as a medicinal plant containing naturally and potentially active ingredients used to cure disease or ameliorate pain (Bhattarai et al., 2016).

Baphia nilida is a tree it grows up to 5m, evergreen and found in tropical climate like South Africa. More, it is shrubby tree growing on the Accra plains, Ghana with smooth braunchlets and fragrant white flowers with a yellow centre, usually one to four together. It is native to west central African; occurs in Sierraleone, Liberia, Coted’ivoire, Togo, Benin, Southern Nigeria, the Republic of Cameroon, Guinea, Gabon, Ghana and Zaire (Carruba et al., 2012).

Baphia nitida has long been used in traditional African medicine. Modern research has shown that several medicinally active compounds are present in the leaves, including saponins, favonoid glycosides and true tannins. An ointment made from leaves has showed anti-inflammatory activity, supported the external use in traditional medicine. Extract of fresh leaves inhibited digestion, showed antidiarrhoeal effects and also demonstrated analgesic activity (Jacquart, 2008). An infusion of the leaves is drunk to cure enteritis and other gastrointestinal problems. The powdered leaves are taken with palm wine or food to cure veneral diseases, combined with senna occidentalis, it is drunk against asthma, in combination with the leaves of morinda lucida it is a treatment against female sterility and painful mensuration. A decoction of the leaves in taken against jaundice and diabetes while both the leaves and bark are considered haemostatic and anti-inflammatory and are used for healing sores and wounds, a back decoction is drunk to cure epilepsy and cardiac pain (Carruba et al., 2012).

A mineral is a naturally occurring substance that is solid and inorganic represented by a chemical formular, usually abiogenic and has an ordered atomic structure. It is different from a rock which can be an aggregate of minerals or non-minerals and does not have a specific chemical composition. The requirement of a valid mineral species to be abiogenic has also been described as similar to have to be inorganic. However, this criterion is imprecise and organic compounds have been assigned a separate classification branch. Finally, the requirement of an ordered atomic arrangement is usually synonymous to being crystalline. However, crystals are periodic in addition to being ordered, so the broader criterion is used instead. Hence, Baphia nitida which could be considered as a medicinal plant was determined to show the naturally occurring elements it contains (Takai, 2010).

However, Baphia nitida which contains significant minerals such as calcium, fluorine, magnesium, calcium, Iron, Zinc and Sodium, where potassium and lead was found to be absent could be considered as a medicinal plant. Since Baphia nitida contains the above mentioned minerals, it is considered therapeutic and medicinal for the treatment of various diseases.

Aim
The aim of this project work was to determine the mineral content of fresh leaves of Baphia nitida.

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
Overview of Baphia nitida
Description of Baphia nitida
Baphia nitida is a shrubby tree growing to about 3m on the Accra plains, Ghana, to about 10m in the forest, with smooth branchlets and fragrant white flowers with a yellow centre usually one the four together. It is a native plant of west central Africa, occurs in sierra leone, Liberia, cote d’ivoire, Togo, Benin, southern Nigeria, the Republic of Cameroon, Guinea, Gabon, Ghana and Zaire. The earliest dye wood (Baphia nitida) was brought from West Africa. The source of the dye, which is soluble in alkali, is the bark and heart of the tree (Carrubba et al., 2012).

The tree (Baphia nitida) is the source of a very good quality red dye and before the advent of chemical dyes, it was heavily exploited. In some regions the tree is considered sacred, endowed with the power to protect against evil spirit and to attract benevolent ones. Widespread in West Africa, there are no major threats to this species at present. This small understory tree, known as iyerosun in Yoruba, occurs in most West Africa rain-forest from Sierra leone to Cameroon. The pods are pointed, 7cm (3ins) long, which ripes in October and split open to release one or two brown shiny seeds. The tree has slider, slightly weeping branches and small glossy leaves (Dressler et al., 2014).

Scientific classification of Baphia nitida (Dressler et al., 2014).
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Genus: Baphia
Species: nitida
Bionomial Name
Baphia nitida lodd
Common names(s)
English – Camwood
French Bois rouge
Igbo – Abosi
Yoruba Osun
Hausa – Maijigi
Synonym(s)
Baphia barombiensis taub (Dressler et al., 2014).

Fig 2.1 Baphia nitida Plant (Dressler et al., 2014).

Uses of Baphia nitida
Baphia nitida has long been used in traditional Africa medicine. Modern research has shown that several medically active compounds are present in the leaves, including saponins, flavonoid glycosides and true tannins. An ointment made from the leaves has showed anti-inflammatory activity, supported the external use in traditional medicine. Extracts of fresh leaves inhibited digestion, showed antidiarrhoeal analgestic activity. An infusion of the leaves is drunk to cure enteritis and other gastrointestinal problem. The powdered leaves are taken with palm wine or food to cure veneral diseases. Combined with senna occidentalis it is drunk against asthma; in combination with the leaves of morinda lucida it is a treatment against female sterility and painful menstruation. A decoction of the leaves is taken against jaundice and diabetes. The leaves or leaf juice are used externally against parasitic skin disease. Combined with cissus quadrangularias it is used to treat bone fracture (Dressler et al., 2014).

Both leaves and bark are considered haemostatic anti-inflammatory, and are used for healing sores and wounds. A bark decoction is drunk to cure epilepsy and cardiac pain. The powdered heartwood is made into an ointment with shea butter (vitellaria paradoxa) and is applied to stiff and swollen joints sprains and reheumatic complaints. Finely ground root bark mixed with honey is taken against asthma. The pounded dried root, mixed with water and oil, is applied to a ringworm like fungus attacking the feet prevent tooth decay, warned leaves are used to treat boils (Dressler et al., 2014).

Mineral Contents
A mineral is a naturally occurring substance that is solid and inorganic represented by a chemical formula, usually abiogenic, and has an ordered atomic structure. The requirement of a valid mineral species to be abiogenic has also been described as similar to have to be inorganic, however, this criterion is imprecise and organic compounds have been assigned a separate classification branch. Finally, the requirement of an ordered atomic arrangement is usually synonymous to being crystalline, however, crystals are periodic in addition to being ordered, so the broader criterion is used instead. The presence of an ordered atomic arrangement translates to a variety of macroscopic physical properties such as crystals form, handiness, and cleavage (Takai, 2010).

Calcium
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol ca and atomic number 20. Calcium is a soft gray alkaline earth metal, and is the fifth most abundant element by mass in the Earth’s crust. Calcium is essential for living organism, in particular in cell physiology, where movement of the calcium ion Ca2+ into and out of the cytoplasm functions as a signal for many cellular processes. As a major materials used in mineralization of bone, health and shells, calcium is the most abundant metal by mass in many animals (Krieck et al., 2010).

Calcium is used as a reducing agent in the extraction of other metals such as uranium, zirconium and thorium. It is used as a deoxidizer, desulfurizer, or decarbonizer for various ferrous and nonferrous alloys. Calcium is used as an alloying agent used in the portion of aluminum, beryllium, copper, lead and magnesium alloys. Also it is used in the making of cheese, where calcium ions influence the activity of rennin in bringing about the coagulation of milk (Newton, 2014).
Calcium is an important component of a healthy diet and a mineral necessary for life. The national osteoporosis foundation says, “Calcium plays an important role in building stronger, denser bones early in life and keeping bones strong and healthy later in life”. Approximately 99% of the boy’s Calcium is stored in the bones and teeth calcium in the body has other important uses, such as some exocytosis, especially neurotransmitters release, and muscle contraction (Hambridge et al., 2012). In the electrical conduction system of the heart, calcium replaces sodium as the mineral that depolarizes the cell, proliferating the action potential.

In cardiac muscle, sodium influx commences an action potential, but during potassium efflux, the cardiac myocyte experiences calcium influx, prolonging the action potential and creating a plateau phase of dynamic equilibrium. Long-term calcium deficiency can lead to rickets and poor blood clotting and in case of a menopausal woman, it can lead to osteoporosis, in which the bone deteriorates and there is an increased risk of fractures. While a lifelong level deficit can affect bone and tooth formation, over-retention can cause hypercalcemia (elevated levels of calcium in the blood), impaired kidney function and decreased absorption of other mineral (Hambridge et al., 2012).

Vitamin D is needed to absorb calcium (Combs, 2008). Dairy products such as milk and cheese, are a well-known source of calcium. Some individuals are allergic to dairy products and even more people, in particular those of non indo-European descent, are lactose. Intolerant, leaving them unable to consume non-fermented diary products in quantifies larger than about half a litre per serving. Others such as vegans, avoid dairy products for ethical and health reasons (Combs, 2008).
Many good vegetable sources of calcium exist, including seaweeds such as keep, wakame and hijiki, nuts and seeds like almonds, hazenuts, soya beans, figs. Quinoa; okra; broccoli; dandelion leaves; and Kale. In addition, several foods and drinks, such as orange juice soya milk, tofu, breakfast cereals are often fortified with calcium (Downing and Islam, 2013).

Recommended Adequate Intake of Calcium
Table 2.1 Recommended Adequate Intake of Calcium (Weingarten et al., 2015).

Toxicity of Calcium
Compared with other metals, the calcium ion and most calcium compound have low toxicity. This is not surprising given the very high natural abundance of calcium compounds in the environment and in organisms. Calcium poses few serious environmental problems, with kidney stones the most common side-effect in clinical studies. Acute Calcium poisoning is rare, and difficult to achieve unless Calcium compounds are administered intravenously. For example, the oral median lethal dose (LD50) for rats for Calcium carbonate and Calcium chloride are 6045 and 1.4mg/100g, respectively. Calcium metal is found in some drain cleaners, where it functions to generate heat and Calcium hydroxide that saponifies the fats and liquefies the proteins eg; hair, that blocks drains. When swallowed Calcium metal has the same effect on the mouth, oesophagus and stomach, and can be fatal (Xiao et al., 2013).

Excessive consumption of Calcium carbonate antacids/dietary supplements (such as terms) over a period of weeks or mouth can cause milk-alkali syndrome, with symptoms ranging from hypercalcemia to potentially fatal renal failure. What constitutes “excessive” consumption is not well known and, it is presumed, varies a great deal from person to person. Persons consuming more than 10grams/day of CaCO3 (=4gca) are at risk of developing-alkali syndrome, but the condition has been reported in at least one persons consuming only 2.5 grams/day of CaCO3 (=1g ca), an amount usually considered moderate and safe. Oral calcium supplement diminish the absorption of thyroxine when taken within four to six hours of each other (Michaelsson et al., 2013).

Biochemical functions of calcium.
Calcium plays essential role in permeability across the mitochondrial membrane

 

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