Impact of Business Education in Manpower Training for Banking Industry

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Manpower training has taken a specific order in most organization. The need to up grade, impact, train and developed the workers for a workplace have no doubt become meritable. The product   of a man tomorrow is the training received today. The product of a man tomorrow is the training received today.

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Commercial Banks especially first bank like any other business enterprise is established for profit motive and is geared towards the attainment of their objectives is through a sound work force/ manpower.

The need for the research work is for the improvement of manpower training via business education for banking sector.
Nigeria like any other developing nations has various financial institutions but the banking system predominates which constitutes a vital and strategic position in the economic growth of the country. Apart from mobilization of resources from surplus economic units of finance the needs of deficit units in the economy it provides job opportunities to the teaming populace, and is basically a service  industry that’s needs specially trained personnel for its service delivery.

Banking industry is generally recognized as a business entity with common motive of profit  making with services delivery activities which requires well informed and trained employees  with virtually basis knowledge of business environment comprises of business experience for general  and specialized reoccupation intelligence (skills).

However, business education has been described as a dynamic field of study geared towards preparing youths and adults  “for” and  about business (Nanassy, Malsbarry and Tonne, 1977). It aims at preparing students to enter a business career or render those who have entered a career more efficient and enable those who have entered  a career more efficient  and enable them to advance to higher levels of employment. This is done through providing training for specific types of jobs, development of the ability to use these skills in the environment of business which postulates job training for business.

Training according to Ile (1993:120) is said to be an investment  and an investment is the commitment of resources to the acquisition  of assets, which is turn allows a  stream of resources to generate in the future the assets acquired can be regarded as education skill, mental or managerial ability.

In other words, training being viewed from this perspective can be defined as the acquisition of skills, habits, knowledge and attitudes the employees for the purpose of increasing the effective of employees.

Ejiofor in 1981, stressed that training can be seen as the  overall process whereby an individual’s  behaviour is modified to conform to a predefined and specific  pattern this shows that the success of any modern economy is anchored on the efficient human resources development. Therefore, the objective of training is to effect change in the behaviour  of those trained for effective performance on the job and to aid in the achievements of organizational goals. It is to develop some specific skills and attitudes needed to perform a particular job or services of jobs to maximize the productivity of the individual being employed and improve the overall organizational efficiency.

Banking is basically a service industry operated by human resources for the benefit of generating and rendering services to the customers with it’s vast activities, it requires a total mobilization of the bank form the board of directors to the least workers (messenger and  counter staff) to be efficient trained as business personnel and a dynamic and motivated  head and branch organization and staff involvement in carrying out the bank  objectives. Obviously, banking industries are filled with personnel for different kinds of jobs, marketing and other kinds of office jobs.

Pondering therefore, business education aims at providing graduates to fit into such jobs which bank industries needed. It trains its manpower in the areas of accounting and computing occupations, business data, processing system, stenographic, secretarial and  related occupations, supervisory and administrative management occupation ( Igboke, 2005). The above training received over a period  of time assists the banking industries to sustain a strong and enviable corporate culture for which the industry in question are known for.

First bank of Nigeria PLC was founded in 1894 by a shipping magnate from liver pool sir Alfred  Jones. It was incorporated as limited liability company in London on march 31st, 1894 with it’s head office in liver pool under the cooperate name of the Bank of British West Africa (BBINA). In 1957, the name was changed to the bank of west Africa; it was incorporated locally to become standard Bank of Nigeria in 1969. In 1979 and 1991, the name was changed to first Bank of Nigeria plc respectively. The bank marked  its centenary anniversary in 1994 (Ndekwu, 1994:1).

However, the modern banking system started in Nigeria in 1892 with the establishment of the African Banking co-operation.

The  co-operation was however taken  over by the Bank of British west Africa following the establishment of the bank in 1984. The Bank of  British  West Africa was subsequently re-named standard Bank of Nigeria and  how, First Bank of Nigeria. The bank was the only surviving bank in the country until it was joined by Barclays Bark in 1917 and union Bank. This is why the bank’s slogan is “truly the first”.

Statement of the Problem

The major problem facing the banking industry shall be focused on efficiency, acceptability and service satisfaction. There is a general complain by the public of poor service, lack of confidence or the system and non- penetration of service association with banking transaction not enjoyed by a large proportion of Nigeria population among others is a  matter of concern. It is obvious that employees who have not received adequate training before being employed or assigned with responsibilities lack the necessary confidence with which to carry out their jobs.

There is also shortage of manpower and inadequacy of well trained or experience employees in the relevant units that make up the business industry to cope with the challenges of managing and  operating a  modern and fast developing complex banking industry. The failure to employ the appropriate person with business skill to fit to the various units of the institutions results to damage  of materials, loss of customers and low productivity of labour.

It is in realization of the inherent advantage of training that result to an  investigation into the subject matter.

Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is the enhancement of the institutional efficiency in manpower training for the attainment of the organizational objectives.

Specifically, the study sought to:

1.  Evaluate the extent of relevance of Business Education training to banking industry.

2.  Determine the effectiveness of business education graduates working in the banking industry.

3.  Determine the efficiency of business education graduate working in the banking industry.

4.  Determine the operational skills needed with training of employees for the organization/ industry.

Significance of the Study

The study is very important because  no organization or institution can attain a greater height without employing well trained personnel. The study is significant because it seeks to answer a lot of unanswered questions about the banking practice generally in relation to training given to bank employees in business education. It is also very important because both the industry and members of the public would benefit tremendously in the sense that they will become aware of the relevance of training as it improves productivity.

Bearing in mind that a lot of research work has been carried out in this field of research, the researcher working with the findings of those who have researched and thus seeks to draw conclusions and make possible suggestions on the way forward after researching.

The study as one can see is very beneficial to banks, bank employees and management bank customers, educationists and scholars of various fields, and even the teachers especially those who are unaware of training to organizational efficiency. The findings and recommendations would be very significance because they would serve as spring boards especially to those who may wish to carry out further research on the subject matter in the future

Research Questions

The following Research Questions were formulated to guide the study:

1.  To what extent is Business Education training relevant  to banking industry?

2.  What determine the effectiveness of business education graduates working in the banking industry?

3.  What determine the efficiency of business education graduate working in the banking industry.

4.  What are the operational skills needed for training of employees for the organization/ industry?

Scope of the Study

These that are opportune to be engaged in training enjoy higher productivity, efficiency and effective use of working materials. It is in realization of the inherent scope in training that informed an investigation into the subject matter. This actual scope also widens the knowledge  of the trainees and limit its study to the first. Bank of Nigeria PLC Afikpo main Branch, as a case study for convenience.

Significant interest will be geared towards the training of manpower as it affects or create an impact in an organization via business education.

Limitation of the Study

A study of this nature can not be completed without some constraints or limitation one of the major limitations of this study as encountered by the researcher was lack of fund.

There were inadequate fund to carry out this research since a study of this nature requires adequate finance to enable the researcher to shuttle from school to the area of study in search of relevant data.

Another limitation to this study was lack  of time. Time was a big constraint in the conduct of this research work. Crowded lecture schedules, preparation for semester examination and other academic activities hardly permitted the research enough time to carry out an exhaustive survey.

It was disheartening to note that some of the respondents did not respond favourably and correctly to the copies of questionnaire administered to them. Most   of respondents were hesitant in completing the copies of questionnaire given to them.




According to Asika (2006) “The purpose of this chapter then is to review all known literature that has relevance to the problem studying”.

These works done by others may include books journals and newspaper articles or magazines relevant to the subject.

For the purpose of this research work, the literatures are to be reviewed under the following subheadings:

(1)      Conceptual Framework :

1.  Meaning of Business Education;

2.  Meaning of manpower and manpower planning;

3.  Meaning of training

(2)      Training offered by Business Education for banking services’

(3)      Training for improvement on the employee’s performance

(4)      Customers impact on the training

(5)      Effectiveness of the training in business education graduates.

(6)      Problem associated with training

(7)      Review of empirical studies

(8)      Summary of related literature

Conceptual Framework

Meaning of Business Education

Difference authors have defined the concept of business education, in various way which postulates the meaning of the subject matter. According to Igboke (2005), Business education is education for and about business also said that business education is that aspect of the total educational programme that provides the knowledge, skills, understanding, attitudes needed to perform in the business world as a producer and/ or consumer of goods and services.

Nwosu (2006), emphasizes that as education for business, it is a training programme or course of study through which recipients acquire knowledge, skills, experience, aptitude and attitudes that enable them to fit into or be employee’s in any of the following four major business areas of secretarial jobs, book- keeping and accounting jobs, distributive and marketing jobs, and clerical/ administrative office jobs.

He further stressed that as education about business, it encompasses all programmes of study whether formal or informal,  apprenticeship schemes, seminar and workshops, publications, computer assisted/ managed instruction, training courses, exhibitions and television programmes which are designed to make recipients knowledgeable and intelligent consumers of business products and services. Azuka (2000), defined business education as, “ a programme of studies, which is aimed at creating awareness in occupations, preparing youths  for work in business occupation; preparing people to become  better citizens and consumers of goods and  services, and preparing business teachers”.  Therefore, business education prepares youths for vocations and also furnishes them with relevant information concerning their lives both as citizens and individuals by developing in them certain skills, attitudes and abilities that are relevant to securing jobs in the business world and give them insight into general business information that will make them efficient and rational purchasers and consumers of business products available.

National Business Education Association 1980 in Ihekwoaba (2005) defined business education as a broad comprehensive discipline whose instructional programme encompasses: The knowledge, attitude and skills needed by  all citizens in order to effectively manage their personal business and economic systems, and the vocational knowledge and skills needed for entry level employment, and advancement in broad range of business  careers.

Therefore, business education is the part of the general education or programme designed with primary purpose of equipping individual with necessary skills required to obtain gainful employment.

Theoretical foundation of Business Education Azuka, Nwosu, Kanu and Agomou (2006), administration and practice of business education should be based or solid foundation”. They opined that for a quality functional and effective business education, theories such as training/ learning environment theory minimum productive ability and so on must be applied.

The training environment according to them should  be a replica of the proposed working environment. They hold the view that the effectiveness and relevance of business education is dependent on the relationship between the training environment and the working environment. Therefore, office- like environment should be provided for effective teaching and learning of business education. In other words, there is a minimum of productive ability, which the trainee must possess inorder to secure or retrain employment in that occupation. They further stressed that adequate repetitive training and maintenance of business education. In order words, there is a minimum of productive ability, which the trainee must possess inorder to secure or retain employment in that occupation. They further stressed that adequate repetitive training and maintenance of minimum standard should be utilized in fixing right habits of doing and thinking to the degree necessary for employment. This, means that training should continue to the point it gives  the training a productive ability with which the trainee can secure employment and progress in it.

Definitions and Meaning of Man Power and Manpower Planning

Manpower has been defined by many authors in different perspective.

According to Abah (1997), it is the collective  strength or availability of work of people in any given area. He further stressed that the effective work force is not only a seine- quanon but it is availability should be that quantity and quality for the survival of an organization.

Geisler (1967), in Okpata (2004) relate his definition to manpower planning. He defined manpower as the process (concluding forecasting, developing and controlling) by which a firm ensures that it has the right number of people and the right kind of people at the right place at the right time, doing work for which they are economically most useful. This is because no organization can activate structural elements and perform various tasks, which require to be performed in order to achieve it’s planned  objectives, without  adequate number and quality of organizational members.

Meanwhile, manpower has been described as human resources and the various activities of human efforts that enhance effectiveness of organization. To this effect, Armstrong (2001), sees it as valued assets- the people working in organization, who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of the organizational objectives. This resulted from the development of human resources (manpower) planning and administration as stated in the previous work of Rensis likert in 1966. He states as follows in respect of the crucial nature of this concept in an  enterprise.

‘All the activities of any enterprise are initiated  and determined by the person who make up the institution plants, offices, computers, automated equipments and all else that a modern firm uses, are unproductive except  for human efforts and direction ….of all the task of management, managing the human components is the central and  most important task, because all else depends on how well it is done”.


Eze (2006), relates his opinion on the human/ manpower manager’s job. He opined that, “it is holistic, integrative and concerned with the effectiveness of work force, in the achievement of organizational goals”. Therefore, manpower and manpower planning constitute of human element in organization working towards achieving the organizational goals and objectives and ways of actualizing such stated objectives through the available work force in such organization.

Training and Manpower Training

Training and manpower training has been defined by many authors in difference ways. According to Anekwu (2003), asserted that training is a way of helping an individual to learning how to carryout satisfactorily the work required of him in his present job. Buckley (1984) in Eze (2006) opined that training is the development of specific or particular occupation and to carry out specific task effectively. Inekwoaba (2005), considered the aspect of vocational training. He refers to it as development of skills for a specific occupation, outside which the individual needs training or – retraining. This therefore aims at development  of skills for specific  occupations for specific individuals which could lead to specialization in the skills.

AzukA, Nwosu, KANU AND Agomuo (2006), in an attempt to distinguish training from education stressed that, “training is a field concerned with teaching particular skills for a specific purpose”.

Moreover, Vaughan noted in 1996, that the word training is gradually acquiring a much broader meaning and he refers to it as activities ranging from acquisition of simple motor skills to the development and changes of socio- emotional attitudes. Training involves complex changes in activity for instance the acquisition of manual skills by semi- skilled work man, the development of leadership and practices of human relation skills by supervisor and executives and many others. Manpower training according to Umar (1992), “is the provision of facilities and opportunities for people to acquire the skills and the knowledge needed to develop their own personal potential to meet the present and future needs of the organization rank and file employees for promotion to supervisory positions and for improving their competence and capabilities while they hold such leadership assignment. It also involves systematic altering the behaviour of employees to increase productivity and attain organizational goals and achievement.

Manpower training involves a systematic development of attitude, knowledge, skills and development of attitude, knowledge, skills and development pattern in an individual in under to perform adequately a given task from the above insight, it is worthy to note that training involves affecting a change in the behavioural pattern of an employee an also involves the acquisition of a new skills and ideas that will enable one perform better on his job. Moreover, training is a continuous process since it involves learning of experiences.

This is because learning encompasses lifetime process in every individual which is essential to all human endeavour especially in the area of learning new skills or adjusting to the already existing skill. This is as a result of dynamism in employment opportunities.

Training offered by Business Education for Banking Industries/Service

Business education has been described as a dynamic field of study geared towards preparing Youths And Adults “For” And “About” business by Nanassy and Tonne in 1977.

Generally, business education is a programme of study which helps to equip people with skills, attitude and knowledge desired in being productive as individual in the society and in the world or work which the banking industry is one of the business occupations.

Igboke, (2005), the main objective and goals of business education programme is preparing students to enter a business career, or to render those who have c

entered an career more efficient and enable them to advance to higher levels of employment. He stressed further that the reason is to provide training or specific type of job and to develop the ability to used these skills in the environment of business.

Ihekwoaba (2005) seen business education training as the aspect of training in education which solves problems  in business occupation as secretary ship, accountancy, administration, management, marketing, word processing etc. According to him, it is part of vocational and technical education where skills gained in such training programme can be used to get employment in banking industries and other allied industries where such skills are needed. Business education develops skills and sub- skills that promote efficiency and speed, in processing business information which equipment both the  individual and industries such as banks with current state of financial and material resources. Business education produces professional accountants, economists, store keepers office managers, professional managers and administrators.

Banking industry is a business entity which operates with many departments which employ different categories of personnel for efficiency running of its business activities.

Business education provides training to individuals who can work as accountants, secretaries, typists, office managers and administration, marketers and other related professions in banking services. Igboke (2005) notes that business  education training programme include, accounting and computing, business data processing system, stenographic, secretarial  and related occupations, supervisor and administrative management. These, he referred as to occupational office intelligence.

Ihekwaba (2005) noted that “accounting is used as a vocational subject, and in a wide range of business careers such as pay roll Clerks, purchasing clerk, audit clerk, book – keeper, cashier etc”. He further stressed that it is education for the training of accountants, accounting offices which trainees are assisted to acquire skills in understanding, analyzing, interpreting and displaying various account information”. In a nut shall, business education provides training which enables its recipients to be employed in banking  industries for such service required from him as accountant, confidential or secretary typists marketer or marketing manager, manager and other clerical activities which is required in banking services.

Training Improvement on the Employees Performance

Training is embarked upon because it contributes in no small measure to enterprise effectiveness. Since training can improve workers skills or changes his attitude towards the job as well as his colleagues, this invariably can improve his productivities and performance in the organization in which he is employed.

According to Bowander and Snell in Eze (2006) stressed that, “training has become increasingly vital for the success of modern organizations as organizations competencies, which give them edge over  their competitors”. He further said that it makes all the difference as the back- bone of strategy implementation which enhances dynamism and ability to cope with the challenges of the rapidly changing technological environment.

Nwachukwu (1993) where stressing on this fact, observed that any organization that gives little or no attention to training is invariably encouraging obsceneness employees rigidity and inflexibility in the organization and total failure in recognizing the changing nature of the changing nature of the environment in which the organization operates,” mean while Eze (2004) opined that employees become more efficient and come to have a better and standing of the purpose of the work they are doing and that quicker progress are made and there reduces the number of unproductive hours of an employee thereby enhances the employee’s performance in the organization. Therefore, organization train or employ qualified personnel to increase out put. This is because; an untrained manpower encourages reduction in the organization efficiency and encourage wastage. Training therefore is the major determinate of employees performance who works for the interest of  every organization that have common goals of increasing productivity and make profits.

Customers impact on the training According to Okafor and Udu (2002), customers constitute a major determinant to business success.” They further stressed that, the extent a inkiness succeed depends on satisfaction that customers received from such business organization that encourage than to is patronize such business.

The nature and levels of training an organization gives to use employee results to the organizational efficiency and productivity there by achieving the organizational objectives. This is because of the fact that the customers knows their needs, and such determines what the firm should produced and the type of services required from the from in order to maximize the customers welfare and for the business to earn maximum profits. Eze (200), noted that, “organizations train their workforce so that the work force can do their jobs well enough for the achievement of the organization goals.

Therefore, the training received by an employ increase the level of his performance which could lead to the service strategies developed by Ansoff in 1987 as in capon (2000), thus; “customer loyalty”  which will enable the customers in purchasing products and services over an extended period of time; “customer extension” which leads to increasing sales by extending the range of producers and service available to the customers; “customer acquiescing”  which involves expanding and acquisition of customers home market and “customer diversification”  which is achieved by selling a new product or services rendered by an employee through introduction of a new technology that is affectively utilized by the employee. The above portrays the fact that the level of training is of huge impact on the customers since the employee deliver service directly to the customers, while customers patronize business where their welfare are to  be guaranteed.

Effectiveness of the training on business education to graduates. According to Auka, Nwosu, Kanu and Agomuo (2006), “ vocational business education aimed at preparing youths for jobs in book-keeping and accounting occupation, office occupations which include word processing, stenographic and secretarial occupations, general and clerical occupations, and general marketing occupation.” There further stressed that the industries are complicated and highly specialized and demand that washes be reduced and efficiency maintained, there is the need to train people well qualified and competent to manage the resource of the industries such people include accountants, secretaries, typists and even clerical officers. Igboke (2005) noted that, “one objective of business education programme is  to prepare the students for employment in graduation.” He further opined that such preparation an training programme should ensure that graduates are able to adapt to occupational changes occasioned by inventions, economic conditions, legislation and promotion. To this end, business education graduate receive training which enable them to cope with dynamisms in work situation.  The major objective of training is to effect change in behaviour in under for the trance to perform effectively in a given task or in one’s jobs.

Therefore, training received by business education graduates enable the individuals to secure employment through the acquired skills, which they can apply to solve problems in business an work effectively as secretaries, administrators, manager, marketers, clerks and other occupations in the field of business education. The above assertion was of the fact that a well trained personnel increase effective productively in every organization, thereby encourage proficiencies in attainment of the organizational goals. Roberts in 1957 as in Azaka etal (2006) opined that, “vocational business education is therefore designed to develop special competencies in marketable business stills and techniques.”

Problem Associated with the Training

Ayida (1971), identified six major problem that militate against training in Nigeria. They include:

(1)      The explosion of economic activity which has given rise excessive expansion of institution and creation of new ones, both in government and in private sector. The effective of this had been to spread training materials thinly in circumstances where they can not be fully supplemented.

(2)      The major problems in the past have been the inadequate co-ordination the needs for additional resources have been recognized, but there were too many organizations involved and this required some effective co-ordination.

(3)      The problem of reluctance to release the staff that has been on job, particularly good ones for any extended period for training.

(4)      The competitive demand for trained man power where the private sector, attracts, trained personnel from the public sector and even with in the private sector, on organization induces the trained manpower of the other. In each of these situation, organization will be unwilling to provide further training fo their employees in the future.

Igboke (2005) in identifying the problems, considers the standard which the training environment especially for job associated.  The problems are:

(1)      Levels of competency vary from one job to job and even with the same company or establishment. There are differences among students/ trainees in their rates of learning and maximum levels of attainment.

(2)      Office supervisors usually have, at best, subjective job performance standards. Therefore,  if the teacher trainer of office work is to have standards, he must, to some extent, create them for school purpose rather than seek them in the job situation.

(3)      Then training/ school environment is remarkably different from that of the job. The problem of standards for work in the training/ learning process are quite different from those in the job environment.

Other Problems Associated with the Training include

(1)Scarcity of qualified teacher- trainers that are well equipped with modern office and industrial revolution and innovations which the work situation demands  for efficiency to employees.  Most of the trainers are embedded with out  dated office and industrial skills which has been replaced with the new office automation due to the inception of the modern day information communication Technologies (ICT). At the other hand the trainers might not be able to  handle such new technological equipments thereby experts are lacking in the training.

(2) Financial problem which construing the training institution to make available all the equipments and machines needed to train the employee which particular job required. This result to the training environment not having workshop, laboratories, equipments and machines to match training with working conditions.

(3) Inadequate industries to practice experience: This is as result of the fact that there are few industries of proper type in Nigeria to provide practical industrial experiences necessary in any good of vocational training programme in order to cope with the dynamic nature of works environments.

Review of Empirical Studies

The study has resulted in consultation of other works, written on the topic by the researcher which aims at providing facts based on the observations and findings drawn from  such works.

Chiawa (2004), investigated on the need for training employees performance, which she used a structured questionnaire in her data collection.  Her study was based on the public enterprise where three hundred employees formed her population. The method used in data analysis was  simple percentage rank. The findings include;

(1)      Every employee in the organization attained one level of training or another.

(2)      That the training received helps to improve productivity of workers.

(3)      Efficient performance of the workers in the organization was as a result of the training given to them which has been the major reason why the organization is performing creditably.

Uzor (2002), on investigating on the strategies for improvement of manpower training in private sector discovered that;

(1)      Personnel in the various departments are sections in the organization are with relevant qualifications.

(2)      The goals of the organization are attained through training of the staff.

(3)      There are problems associated with that training of the workers in the organization. Some of the problems according to him include; inability of management to identify the training needs of  the workers, short period reserved for training programmes, poor quality trainers and lack of equipments for training of workers.

(4)      Personnel in the various departments are sections in the organization are with relevant qualifications.

In comparison, the above researcher based his research on the need for man power training using Ebonyi State Broadcasting co-operation (EBBC) as a  case study. The study was carried and analyzed with the use of simple percentage which he came up with many findings, prominent among them was that all workers attain one level of training or the other.

At the other hand, this particular study investigated on the impacts of Business Education in manpower training for banking industry. The study was carried out in similar method using survey type of investigation, but was analyzed with the use of mean and standard deviation. The findings show different views which shows that Business Education provides training to bank employees in different sections of human endeavour in banking industry. Therefore, the need for manpower training could not be  over emphasized as the results of training effects  changes and increase productivity  in every organization.

Summary of Related Literature

Business education is said to be an aspect of vocational education focuses on training of individuals on the acquisition of requisite and practical skills, and competences, knowledge and attitudes relating of office jobs and occupations in various sectors. Despite the various views of different people about the subject matter, it epitomizes training for office skills, commence and industries of all human endeavour. In other words, it is education for and about business.

Manpower, training involves a systematic development of attitudes, skills and knowledge in individuals  in order to develop their own personnel potentials and contribute positively towards achieving the organizational goals.

It was discovered and believed that both business education and manpower training aims at development of skills man individual for effective performance in various task required from employee in an organization. Business education trains personnel for banking services as the customers feel the impact of the training received. The training received creates a positive vacuum for business education graduates for efficiency on job performances.

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