Identification of Fungi on the body of Shrimps (Case Study Ebonyi State, Abakaliki)

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Identification of Fungi on the body of Shrimps (Case Study Ebonyi State, Abakaliki)

The term shrimp is used to refer to some decapod crustaceans, although the exact animals covered can vary. Used broadly, it may cover any of the groups with elongated bodies and a primarily swimming mode of locomotion – chiefly Caridea and Dendrobranchiata.

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In some fields, however, the term is used more narrowly, and may be restricted to Caridea, to smaller species of either group, or to only the marine species. Under the broader definition, shrimp may be synonymous with prawn, covering stalk-eyed swimming crustaceans with long narrow muscular tails (abdomens), long whiskers (antennae) and slender legs. They swim forward by paddling with swimmerets on the underside of their abdomens. Crabs and lobsters have strong walking legs, whereas shrimp have thin fragile legs Donald which they use primarily for perching (fenner and Abbott et al., 1980).
Shrimp are widespread and abundant. They can be found feeding near the seafloor on most coasts and estuaries, as well as in rivers and lakes. To escape predators, some species flip off the seafloor and dive into the sediment. They usually live from one to seven years. Shrimp are often solitary, though they can form large schools during the spawning season (Gracia, 1996).

There are thousands of species, and usually there is a species adapted to any particular habitat. Any small crustacean which resembles a shrimp tends to be called one. They play important roles in the food chain and are important food sources for larger animals from fish to whales. The muscular tails of shrimp can be delicious to eat, and they are widely caught and farmed for human consumption. Commercial shrimp species support an industry worth 50 billion dollars a year, and in 2010 the total commercial production of shrimp was nearly 7 million tonnes. Shrimp farming took off during the 1980s, particularly in China, and by 2007 the harvest from shrimp farms exceeded the capture of wild shrimp. There are significant issues with excessive by catch when shrimp are captured in the wild, and with pollution damage done to estuaries when they are used to support shrimp farming. Many shrimp species are small as the term shrimp suggests, about 2 cm (0.79 in) long, but some shrimp exceed 25 cm (9.8 in). Larger shrimp are more likely to be targeted commercially, and are often referred to as prawns, particularly in Britain (Bruce and Niel et al., 2009).

Shrimps are important types of seafood that are consumed worldwide. They are noted for their highly nutritive value in most of minerals. Shrimp can be a unique source of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory carotenoid nutrient astaxanthin. It is possible for a single 4-ounce serving of shrimp to contain 1-4 milligrams of astaxanthin. In animal studies, astaxanthin has been shown to provide antioxidant support to both the nervous system and musculoskeletal system. In addition, some animal studies have shown decreased risk of colon cancer to be associated with astaxanthin intake, as well as decreased risk of certain diabetes-related problems. Importantly, the astaxanthin content of shrimp can vary widely, mostly in proportion to the amount of astaxanthin in their diet. In addition, the source of astaxanthin in the diet of shrimp remains an ongoing controversy. Since over half of the shrimp consumed both in the U.S. and worldwide are farmed, the diets that they consume depend on the approach of the producers. However, it is of great important to point out that studies have shown that shrimps contain some fungi within its body frame (Ayuso et al., 2012).

Aim and Objectives of the Study
The main aim of this project is to find out the major fungi on the body of shrimps sold in Abakailiki metropolies.
1. To identify the pathogenic fungi found on fresh shrimp in Abakaliki.

2. To identify the distribution of the fungi on the head, body and tail of shrimp sold in Abakaliki metropolies.

Statement of the Study
The threat posed by fungi disease in Abakailiki metropolies most especially those found in shrimps when consumed is called for urgent attention, thus, the need for this project research.

Scope of the Study
The scope of this study will be primary limited to the study of fungi of fresh shrimp sold in Abakaliki metropolies.

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
The term shrimp originated around the 14th century with the Middle English shrimpe, akin to the Middle Low German schrempen, and meaning to contract or wrinkle; and the Old Norse skorpna, meaning to shrivel up (Shrimp Encyclopædia Britannica, 2012).
In 1991, archeologists suggested that ancient raised paved areas near the coast in Chiapas, Mexico, were platforms used for drying shrimp in the sun, and that adjacent clay hearths were used to dry the shrimp when there was no sun. The evidence was circumstantial, because the chitinous shells of shrimp are so thin they degrade rapidly, leaving no fossil remains. In 1985 Quitmyer and others found direct evidence dating back to 600 AD for shrimping off the southeastern coast of North America, by successfully identifying shrimp from the archaeological remains of their mandibles (jaws). Clay vessels with shrimp decorations have been found in the ruins of Pompeii. In the 3rd century AD, the Greek author Athenaeus wrote in his literary work, Deipnosophistae; ” of all fish the daintiest is a young shrimp in fig leaves” (Voorhies and Michaels et al., 1991).

In North America, Native Americans captured shrimp and other crustaceans in fishing weirs and traps made from branches and Spanish moss, or used nets woven with fibre beaten from plants. At the same time early European settlers, oblivious to the “protein-rich coasts” all about them, starved from lack of protein (Gillett, 2008).
In 1735 beach seines were imported from France, and Cajun fishermen in Louisiana started catching white shrimp and drying them in the sun, as they still do today.[61] In the mid nineteenth century, Chinese immigrants arrived for the California Gold Rush, many from the Pearl River Delta where netting small shrimp had been a tradition for centuries. Some immigrants starting catching shrimp local to San Francisco Bay, particularly the small inch long Crangon franciscorum. These shrimp burrow into the sand to hide, and can be present in high numbers without appearing to be so. The catch was dried in the sun and was exported to China or sold to the Chinese community in the United States. This was the beginning of the American shrimping industry. Overfishing and pollution from gold mine tailings resulted in the decline of the fishery. It was replaced by a penaeid white shrimp fishery on the South Atlantic and Gulf coasts. These shrimp were so abundant that beaches were piled with windrows from their moults. Modern industrial shrimping methods originated in this area (Gillett, 2008).

For shrimp to develop into one of the world’s most popular foods, it took the simultaneous development of the otter trawl… and the internal combustion engine. Shrimp trawling can capture shrimp in huge volumes by dragging a net along the seafloor. Trawling was first recorded in England in 1376, when King Edward III received a request that he ban this new and destructive way of fishing. In 1583, the Dutch banned shrimp trawling in estuaries.
In the 1920s, diesel engine was adapted for use in shrimp boats. Power winches were connected to the engines, and only small crews were needed to rapidly lift heavy nets on board and empty them. Shrimp boats became larger, faster, and more capable. New fishing grounds could be explored, trawls could be deployed in deeper offshore waters, and shrimp could be tracked and caught round the year, instead of seasonally as in earlier times. Larger boats trawled offshore and smaller boats worked bays and estuaries. By the 1960s, steel and fibre glass hulls further strengthened shrimp boats, so they could trawl heavier nets, and steady advances in electronics, radar, sonar, and GPS resulted in more sophisticated and capable shrimp fleets. As shrimp fishing methods industrialised, parallel changes were happening in the way shrimp were processed. “In the 19th century, sun dried shrimp were largely replaced by canneries. In the 20th century, the canneries were replaced with freezers.”
In the 1970s, significant shrimp farming was initiated, particularly in China. The farming accelerated during the 1980s as demand for shrimp exceeded supply, and as excessive by catch and threats to endangered sea turtle became associated with trawling for wild shrimp. In 2007, the production of farmed shrimp exceeded the capture of wild shrimp.

Classification
Shrimp are swimming crustaceans with long narrow muscular abdomens and long antennae. Unlike crabs and lobsters, shrimp have well developed pleopods (swimmerets) and slender walking legs; they are more adapted for swimming than walking. Historically, it was the distinction between walking and swimming that formed the primary taxonomic division into the former suborders Natantia and Reptantia. Members of the Natantia (shrimp in the broader sense) were adapted for swimming while the Reptantia (crabs, lobsters, etc.) were adapted for crawling or walking. Some other groups also have common names that include the word “shrimp”; any small swimming crustacean resembling a shrimp tends to be called one (Liberman, 2012).

Description
The diagram below refers mainly to the external anatomy of the common European shrimp, Crangon crangon, as a typical example of a decapod shrimp. The body of the shrimp is divided into two main parts: the head and thorax which are fused together to form the cephalothorax, and a long narrow abdomen. The shell which protects the cephlathorax is harder and thicker than the shell elsewhere on the shrimp, and is called the carapace. The carapace typically surrounds the gills, through which water is pumped by the action of the mouthparts (Fenner et al., 1980). The rostrum, eyes, whiskers and legs also issue from the carapace. The rostrum, from the Latin Rōstrum meaning beak, looks like a beak or pointed nose at the front of the shrimp’s head. It is a rigid forward extension of the carapace, and can be used for attack or defense. It may also stabilize the shrimp when it swims backwards. Two bulbous eyes on stalks sit either side of the rostrum.
These are compound eyes which have panoramic vision and are very good at detecting movement. Two pairs of whiskers (antennae) also issue from the head. One of these pairs is very long, and can be twice the length of the shrimp, while the other pairs are quite short. The antennae have sensors on them which allow the shrimp to feel where they touch, and also allow them to “smell” or “taste” things by sampling the chemicals in the water. The long antennae help the shrimp orient itself with regard to its immediate surroundings, while the short antennae help assess the suitability of prey ( De Grave and Fransen, 2011).
Eight pairs of appendages issue from the cephlathorax. The first three pairs, the maxillipeds, Latin for “jaw feet”, are used as mouthparts. In Crangon crangon, the first pair, the maxillula, pumps water into the gill cavity. After the maxilliped come more five pairs of appendages, the pereiopods. These form the ten decapod legs. In Crangon crangon, the first two pairs of pereiopods have claws or chela. The chela can grasp food items and bring them to the mouth. They can also be used for fighting and grooming. The remaining six legs are long and slender, and are used for walking or perching (Segers and Martens, 2012).
The muscular abdomen has six segments and has a thinner shell than the carapace. Each segment has a separate overlapping shell, which can be transparent. The first five segments each have a pair of appendages on the underside, which are shaped like paddles and are used for swimming forward. The appendices are called pleopods or swimmerets, and can be used for more purposes than just swimming. Some shrimp species use them for brooding eggs, others have gills on them for breathing, and the males in some species use the first pair or two for insemination. The sixth segment terminates in the telson flanked by two pairs of appendages called the uropods. The uropods allow the shrimp to swim backwards, and function like rudders, steering the shrimp when it swims forward. Together, the telson and uropods form a splayed tail fan. If a shrimp is alarmed, it can flex its tail fan in a rapid movement. This results in a backward dart called the caridoid escape reaction (lobstering) (Segers and Martens, 2012).

Fig 1: Structure of shrimp (Source: Snyderman and Marty et al., 1996)

Shrimp Species
There are many shrimp species distributed world-wide. Important shrimp of the Gulf of Mexico catch are the brown shrimp, Penaeus aztecus the white shrimp, Penaeus setiferus; and the pink shrimp; Penaeus duorarum. Two exotic shrimp have gained importance in Gulf Coast aquaculture operations. These are the Pacific white (white leg) shrimp, Penaeus vannamei, and the Pacific blue shrimp, Penaeus stylirostris. These two species are used likewise throughout the Americas on both east and west coasts. In Asia, the Pacific, and to some extent the Mediterranean, the following species are used: Penaeus monodon, Penaeus merguiensis, Penaeus chinensis, Penaeus japonicus, Penaeus semisulcatus, Penaeus indicus, Penaeus penicillatus and Metapenaeusensis. Penaeus monodon, the giant tiger (or black tiger) shrimp is the world leader in aquaculture.

Habitat
Shrimp are widespread, and can be found near the seafloor of most coasts and estuaries, as well as in rivers and lakes. There are numerous species, and usually there is a species adapted to any particular habitat. Most shrimp species are Marine although about a quarter of the described species are found in fresh water. Marine species are found at depths of up to 5,000 metres (16,000 ft), and from the tropics to the polar region. Some of the species of shrimps and the habitat are shown in the diagrams below.

Fig 2: Shrimps that lived in a fairly shallow waters and use their “walking legs” to perch on the sea bottom (Source: Snyderman and Marty et al., 1996).

Fig 3: Showing cherry shrimps perching on plant leaves (Source: Snyderman and Marty et al., 1996).

Fig 4: Heterocarpus ensifer shrimp living in deep and dark waters (Source: Snyderman and Marty et al., 1996).

Fig 5: The delicate transparent Pederson’s shrimp lives with anemone hosts, and cleans parasites from fish ( Snyderman and Marty et al., 1996)

Behaviour
There are many variations in the ways different types of shrimp look and behave. Even within the core group of caridean shrimp, the small delicate Pederson’s shrimp (above) looks and behaves quite unlike the large commercial pink shrimp or the snapping pistol shrimp. The caridean family of pistol shrimps is characterized by big asymmetrical claws, the larger of which can produce a loud snapping sound. The family is diverse and worldwide in distribution, consisting of about 600 species. Colonies of snapping shrimp are a major source of noise in the ocean and can interfere with sonar and underwater communication. The small emperor shrimp has a symbiotic relationship with sea slugs and sea cucumbers, and may help keep them clear of ectoparasites (Kenneth, 2000).

Fungi of Shrimp
A fungus is any member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds (British English: moulds), as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which is separate from plants, animals, protists, and bacteria. One major difference is that fungal cells have cell walls that contain chitin, unlike the cell walls of plants and some protists, which contain cellulose, and unlike the cell walls of bacteria. These and other differences show that the fungi form a single group of related organisms, named the Eumycota (true fungi or Eumycetes), that share a common ancestor (is a monophyletic group). This fungal group is distinct from the structurally similar myxomycetes (slime molds) and oomycetes (water molds) (Zabriskie and Jackson, 2000).
Fungi have a worldwide distribution, and grow in a wide range of habitats, including extreme environments such as deserts or areas with high salt concentrations or ionizing radiation, as well as in deep sea sediments. Some can survive the intense UV and cosmic radiation encountered during space travel. Most grow in terrestrial environments, though several species live partly or solely in aquatic habitats, such as the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a parasite that has been responsible for a worldwide decline in amphibian populations. This organism spends part of its life cycle as a motile zoospore, enabling it to propel itself through water and enter its amphibian host such as the shrimps. Other examples of aquatic fungi include those living in hydrothermal areas of the ocean (Karlson-Stiber and Persson . 2003).

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