Factors Militating Against Effective Supervision of Secondary Schools

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Factors Militating Against Effective Supervision of Secondary Schools

Whenever more than one person is involved in an activity or organization, interaction is bound to take place inform of some established relationship. In the same vein, since most rational activities existing in human enterprise usually involve people, there is need for directives, which can be given inform of supervision.

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However, organizations such as hospital, industries, schools etc require one form of supervision or the other.

Supervision in school context entails a process of guiding, directing and stimulating growth with the overall aim of improving teaching and learning (Ezeocha, 1985:10).

According to Good (1985:10), supervision is a vital aspect of school administration which focuses specifically on improving teaching and learning in school. As an integral part of school system, it aimed at improving the professional development of quality of instruction. Supervision is seen as a type of service rendered to the teacher in order to improve their quality of teaching, stimulate skills and competencies. Supervision employs advice, criticism, clarification, verification and justification to improve teaching and learning in school. Ugwu (2000:18) said that there are teaching and administrative activities in Nigeria today. There is a process needed to determine what to teach, now and how to teach it. The individuals to be taught are believed to be full of unique talents and capability.
The variation in teacher’s talents and potentialities, learners capabilities, teaching method, societal needs and problems that call for supervision of instruction at schools in Ezza North Local Government Area. The aim and objectives of our educational process can only be achieved if the curriculum contents is well implemented and this can be done through effective teachers instruction coupled with regular supervision.
The role of supervision includes that of facilitating the desire change, providing resources, monitoring progress and evaluating implementation results.
Nwaogu (1980:33) states that supervision seems destined to play an essential role in deciding the nature and content of curriculum and learning material to facilitate teaching and evaluating the entire educational process. Supervision of instruction provides guidance, assistance and feed back to the teachers which enable him or her to improve on his performances. It ensures among other things the regular provision of quality instruction, consistency between education and objective and better performance of student in both internal and external examination.
Eze, B. B. (2009:8), said, despite the emphasis laid on this supervision, it is very unfortunate to note that effective supervision is not effectively done in schools.

Nwaogu (1980:34) states that effective co-ordination of the total programme has never been achieved in most pressing needs in secondary school education throughout Africa today.
Supervision of schools is becoming problematic and ineffective in Ezza North Local Government Area due to insufficient supervisors who will supervise schools, lack of relevant materials, tools and resources, lack of good proper training of supervisors, resistances of teachers to change in innovation and lack of good roads. In order to solve this problems, there is need to improve in a supervisory activities of secondary schools in Ezza North.
Marks (1999:70) says that the value of supervision lies in the development and improvement of the teaching and learning situations and is reflected in the development of the students
Statement of the Problem
Effective supervision of secondary schools involves guiding, helping and advising teachers in order to improve on the quality of their work. These are the major ways for the attainment of educational goals. Unfortunately, it has been observed by some educated elites in the states particularly in Ezza North Local Government Area that this vital aspect of education is no longer given the desired attention.
In the light of the above, some of the problems which the researcher identified are:

The degree of attention given to supervision in our secondary schools, particularly in secondary schools in Ezza North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State as compared with other aspect of education are inadequate. Shortage of teacher in Ezza North is at high rate to compare with other local government in the state.
Teachers in Ezza North pay a negative attention during supervision.
The above stated problems gave some insight into some of the factors militating against effective supervision of secondary schools in the area.

Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to identify the major factors militating against effective supervision of secondary schools in Ezza North Local Government Area. Specifically this study sought.
1. To identify the major factors militating against effective supervision of secondary schools in Ezza North Local Government Area
2. To ascertain the attitude of the teacher during supervision
3. To ascertain the attitude of the supervisors during supervision.
4. To sought out other possible solutions to ineffectiveness in supervision of secondary schools in Ezza North Local Government Area.
Significance of the Study
The study will be of benefit to the following:
1. The students. This will help the students to achieve more in their academic performance. When the students are supervised and the manner through which they learn are also supervised, it will breed success.
2. The Educational Administrators/planners in the state. This will help them to know the area that are lagging behind as far as supervision is concerned and to ensure that proper planning is done to improve on it.
3. The teachers. The teachers and principal will also benefit from effective and regular supervision in their school. When their schools are frequently supervised, these teachers will develop positive attitude toward their work.

Scope of the Study
The study is delimited to secondary schools in Ezza North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.

Research Questions
The following research questions were stated to guide the study
1. What are the factors militating against effective supervision of secondary schools in Ezza North Local Government Area.
2. To what extent do the attitudes of teachers affect supervision in secondary schools in Ezza North Local Government Area.
3. To what extent do the attitudes of supervisors affect supervision in secondary schools in Ezza North Local Government Area.
4. What are the possible solutions to the in effectiveness in supervision of secondary schools in Ezza North Local Government Area.

Conceptual frame work
Concept of supervision
Theoretical framework
Scientific management theory
Theory of human relation
Theoretical studies
Types of supervision
Purpose of supervision
Attitudes of teachers towards supervision
Qualities of supervisors
Factors militating against effective supervision of secondary schools
Empirical studies

Concept of Supervision
Various authorities in the field of education have come up with different definitions of supervision.
Ezeocha (1990:36) sees supervision as all efforts made by staff members whether within or outside the school to improve teaching and learning. Similarly, Ezeocha (1985:6) views supervision as a process of guiding, directing and stimulating growth with the overall aim of improving teaching and learning. Alu Be, Ede f. E, Eya L. O, Odo. C. O, Ugwu J. C (1997:38) observes that supervision of instruction in schools entails the guiding and co-ordination of the work in such a way that facilitates learning by students. They also see it as covering all studies directed at improving the conditions which surround the learning and growth of pupils and teachers.
Ezeuwa (2006:82) see supervision as all the professional assistance, support, advice and guidance given to the teacher by designated official of the ministry of education, secondary Education Board, state primary Education Board and the school system for the purpose of improving instruction through improving the teachers knowledge, skills and competencies as well as work environment.
Nwawgu (1980:62) says that supervision is concerned with making adequate provision for all the conditions that are essential for effective learning through effective teaching.

In order to have effective teaching and learning in school, there is need for supervision the work of teachers needs to be guided and co-ordinated including all those connected with the school work in such a way that facilitates learning by the students.
Since all teachers can not develop at the same rate and at the same time, and because of the understanding of the teaching profession might not be the same, the supervisor therefore works with the teacher by trying to understand the teaching styles, objectives and also promotes the teachers development and understanding of his profession.
Nwawgu (1980:62) went further by quoting the elementary school principal in United States of America who has defined supervision as a four-point programme.
i. The appraisal of specific situations to ascertain the needs of children and the deficiency of instruction.
ii. Technical service to teachers in the form of instructional aids, specific suggestion for the improvement of instruction and assistance in pupils diagnosis and measurement.
iii. Research for the purpose of curriculum construction and revision and for the improvement of materials, techniques and methods of instructions.
iv. Profession leadership and co-operation with teachers through stimulation of further professional study and through co-operative development of some programme of in-service education. He was able to deduce from the above definition that supervision is a process or an activity by when an individual by means of advising and stimulating interest in teachers and pupils, help to improve teaching and learning situation in Educational institutions.

Nwanekwe V. C. (2008:72) sees supervision as all efforts directed towards the provision of leadership to teachers and every other instructional aids needed for the improvement of teaching and learning.
Olagboya (2004:18) defined school supervision as the process of overseeing the work of the school staff. Those who oversee the activities of those staff to ensure the effective delivery of education are the supervisors.
If supervision is viewed as a process, than all the personnel who practice supervision in school (supertendent, principal, librarian, staff personnel) are supervisors at one time or the other.
his successful management of human organization of any school requires commitment from the total staff.
A critical aspect, which differentiates supervisory behavior from other forms of organizational behavior, is action to achieve the effectiveness of educational program for students by helping teachers to become more effective in the classroom is behaving in a supervising way. In this case, the principal is dependent upon the teacher as he attempts to increase program effectiveness. Since behavior is a significant part of the supervisory process, it is often useful to focus on this aspect of supervision as a primary analytical method for increasing understanding of the process as a whole.

While the supervisory process require attention to social, cultural, attitudinal and behavioural conducts of the total supervisory environment, it is often easier to discuss the process in terms of behavior when administrators and others work with things and ideas rather than people as they rather in a supervisory way, certain aspects of school goals are more effectively accomplished through behavior described of supervisory.
Ndu, Ocho and Okeke (1997:32) defined supervision as process of enhancing and improving effective teaching and learning in school. It is a positive democratic action aimed at the improvement of classroom through the continual growth of all concerned, the student, the supervisor, the administration and the parents.
Supervisory effort, most of the times include aspects of change in behavior. A major effort of any supervisory act is the changing of some aspect of person concept or self way of behaving, attitude set or self way of behaving, attitude set or relationship to the school and within the school as an organization. Supervision according to Nwaogu (1980:62) is the process of bringing about improvement in instruction working with people who are with students. Supervision is a process of stimulating growth and a means or helping teachers to help themselves. The supervisory programme is one of instructional development.
The term supervision is used to describe those activities, which are primarily and directly concerned with studying and improving the condition which surround the learning, the growth of pupils and teachers. Good supervision is a process of releasing energies of people in creative ways to solve individuals and common problems.
It can be seen as a vital process, which by means of advice, direction and discussion helps to see the available resources-man- Power, finance and capital equipment are utilized for the achievement of educational objectives.

According to Peretomode (1998:5) supervision is a social service that is produced for the general population of a computing for the purpose of educating and providing enlightment for the people. Through education, skills are acquired and this enables a country to develop.
Nwankwo, C. (2010:12) define supervision of instruction as a set of activities which are carried out with the purpose of making the teaching and learning exercise better for the learner.
In these cases, supervision does not connote cohercion, force or punitive measures against teacher rather it is seen as a process of helping, advising, assisting, directing, guiding, counseling and motivating teachers in order to facilitate their professional growth.

Theoretical Frame Work
Scientific Management Theory
Fredrick Winslow Taylor is generally acknowledges as a father of scientific management. This was the earliest systematic view which held that administration was intended to maximized the output of workers in an organization by applying the principle of scientific management.
Generally, the term connotes the process of approaching the various aspects of organization. Also in his view, excellent management resides in knowing exactly what you want men to do and then seeing that they do it in the best and cheapest way (Oramasi, 2001:18).
One of Taylors greatest contributions was the scientific analysis of the processes and tasks performed by workmen resulting in increased productivity. The fundamental Principles that Taylor and his follower saw underlying the scientific approach to management may be summarized as follows:
1. Replacing rules of thumb with science (organized knowledge)
2. Obtaining harmony in group action rather than discord
3. Achieving co-operation of human beings, rather than chaotic individualism.
4. Working for maximum output, rather than restricted output.
5. Developing all workers to the fullest extent possible for their own and their companies highest prosperity.
The scientific management theory has some relevance to the effective supervision of schools. Supervision requires effective research findings, it requires harmony in group action, working for maximum output and staff development. Thus, the scientific management theory is powerful enough to be leading theoretical based for this study.

Theory of Human Relations
The theory of human relations arose as a reaction to the scientific management which ignored or underestimated the human factors in management (Hoy and Miskel 1978:42).
The central message of this theory is that, the fundamental problem of any enterprise is the building and maintenance of dynamic, yet harmonies human relationship.
This means that workers need to be understood with respect to their interaction in the organization of settings. According to Oramesi (2001:18), the human relation movement was led by many partners Follet (1868-1933).
Follet wrote series of brilliants papers in which she contradicted the earlier notion that wages and physical working condition were the chief factors in the employee motivation and productivity. According to Abba, Anazodo and Okoye (2004:10). Follet stressed the following points.
1. Involving workers in solving problems and
2. The dynamics of management and rather that static principles

This involvement brought behavioural scientists into the management field, its literature is more experimental, analytical than theoretical. Among the rest of the human relations theorists are Mayo, Chris Aggris, Herzberge, Douglas Macgregor, Abraham Maslow and Chester Bernard. Mayo and Chris Aggris believe and approve through their experiment, that improved working condition would improve human productivity.
Human relations movement hold great impact on management practice, it made management aware of workers as human beings rather than as logs in the machinery.
Chester Barnard made an important contribution by leading industrial execution to recognize the importance of human being in the psycho-social setting. The relevance of this theory to the current study lies on its emphasis on employee motivation, workers involvement in management activities and building and maintaining dynamic but harmonious human relationships. These are essential for the success of effective supervision of instructions in schools.

Types Inspection/Supervision
1. Full inspection: As the name implies, full inspection is simply a type of inspection, which demands comprehensive assessment of all that is on ground with regard to educational institutions. It is also known as general basic inspection. During full inspection, inspectors under take complete assessment of the following aspect of the school.
i. Teaching and non-teaching staff.
ii. Classes and its activities
iii. Subjects taught with the view of ascertaining their relevance and extent taught.
iv. School record
v. School materials and equipment.
vi. School plant and
vii. The general outlook of the school

2. Routine inspection: According to Peretomode (1995); this is also known as routine visit. In such visit inspectors just pay a visit to a school without notice, no formal reports are written but short comments are made based on the outcome of the inspection. Routine visit is often for a special purpose. It may be to assess the extent of damage in case rainstorm blew off school root or it could be that there were reports of chronic absenteeism against some teachers or that teaching is not taken seriously in the school. One remarkable thing about routine inspection is that during the cause of visit, anomalies discovered are adequately addressed.

3. Follow-up visits: Follow up inspection takes place after full inspection must have been carried out on the school. During full inspection visits, reports must have identified area the school Administration would give attention.
In follow-up visit, the inspectors address the extent to which the actions taken by the school to correct discovered anomalies found during full inspection have helped in the teaching and learning situation of the school. A follow-up visit is often of two years interval or two years after a full inspection of a school.

4. Advisory visits: This is also known as pastoral visit or inspection. It involves an inspectors or a group of inspectors paying a scheduled visited to a school for the purpose of advising the school community on the area of teaching and learning activities that needs improvement.

5. Sampling and survey visits: In this inspection, a number of schools may be selected for special visit. This occurs over a period of time with the aim of inspecting specific areas of education such as the use of new physics equipment in the teaching of physics in senior secondary school.

6. Special Visit: As the name implies, special visit deals with the special case that are also specific in nature, like the special visit based on the specific purpose of looking into the teaching of a new subject in the school. This type of inspection is partial in that it is limited to the teaching of a specific subject or a special problem like the problem of indiscipline in schools especially student absenteeism, health or feeding problem.

7. Internal supervision: This is the type of supervision that is conducted inside the school by the principal, voice principal, Dean of studies, teacher. Etc. This is mostly centered on the improvement of instructions.
Purpose of Supervision
According to Ndu et al., (1997), there is no gain saying the fact that poor quality teachers need supervision so as to improve their performance on the job. An improvement in teachers performance will naturally lead to a corresponding improvement of the performance of students themselves.
i. It can therefore be said that one of the purpose of supervision is to improve the quality of teaching and learning for the benefit of both the learner and the teacher.
ii. It is to ensure that every teacher in the school is effectively performing the duties assigned to him like every other human being, teachers are sometimes lazy and need to be gingered and stimulated through the process of supervision. In this case, they are guided, stimulated, helped and advised to do their job better.
iii. It is to assist teachers needed teaching competencies.
iv. It is also to help teachers to solve the professional problems they may encounter in their work.

Supervision helps teachers to be self divertive by developing in them such important positive attitudes, less skills and information that will make them prepared to voluntarily contribute to the solution of instructional problems.
i. It is to help new teachers to have a clear understanding of the objectives, role and relationship of their position as well as the direction of their efforts in the school. New teachers need supervision because they have a number of problems, which required urgent attention so that they can settle down quickly on the job.
ii. It is also to help teachers in identifying their strengths and weakness with a view to provide relevant in-service training.
According to Alu (2001), the following are purposes for supervision of instruction in schools.
i. The need to check teaching methods: supervision helps in checking the teacher’s method of imparting knowledge. This is crucial because different topics demand different method of teaching them through supervision. Teachers can be connected by being shown the appropriate methods.
ii. To develop highly motivated teaching staff: supervision is carried out through classroom visitations, conferences and demonstrations with supervision, the teachers self-esteem, moral and sense of belonging are given adequate appreciation to the overall development of teaching and learning.
Principles guiding the Operation on Instructional Supervision
There are a number of guiding principles which govern the operation of instructional supervision. They include the following according to Peretomode (1998:68).
i. Supervision of instruction is directed towards both maintaining and improving the teaching-learning process of the school.
ii. Supervision is flexible: This principle demands that supervision of instruction should be flexible and adaptive and adopt an eclectic rather than adhering to single techniques in the supervision of instruction.
iii. Good supervision of instruction strives to enhance the job satisfaction of teachers and also improve their moral.
They can also be said to include the following:
i. Good supervision is based upon democratic philosophy
ii. Supervision will respect personality and individual difference between personalities and will sect to provide opportunities for the best expression of each unique personality.
iii. Supervision will be based on the assumption that education workers are capable of growth. It will accept idiosyncrasies, reluctance to co-operate and antagonism as human characteristics, just as it accepts resemblance, co-operation and energetic activity.
iv. Supervision will provide full opportunity for the co-operative formulation of policies and plans will welcome and utilize free expression and contribution from all.
v. Supervision will stimulate initiative, self-reliance and individual responsibility on the part of all persons in the discharge of their duties.
vi. Supervision should be creative.
vii. Supervision will determine procedures in the light of the need of each supervisory teaching-learning situation.
viii. Supervision will provide opportunity for the exercise of originality and for the development of unique contribution of creative expression.

Attitude of Teachers towards Supervision
Due to some reasons, teachers exhibit many attitudes towards supervision. Most of which do not really make the exercise what it ought to be. The following are some of the attitudes of teachers towards supervision. Most teachers do not really understand what supervision is all about. According to Olagbaya (2004), teachers tend to regard every visit of either the supervisors or inspectors as on inspection which is designed to embarrass, evaluate and criticize the teachers. As a result, instead of seeing the supervisors as friends, they see them as enemies and this affects their relationship with them.
Some teachers do not believed that somebody who is not a specialist in their subject area can supervise them. This makes them not to accept criticisms of the supervisors and refuse innovative ideas given by the supervisors. This is because they believe that supervisor who is not a specialist in their own subject area has got nothing to offer as far as teaching/learning problem is concerned.
Sometimes, because teachers’ salaries are being delayed and even when it is paid, it will be too small for them to cope with the economy of the country, teachers do not only depend on the teaching profession for a living. Most teachers have some other sources of income apart from the teaching profession. This makes them to devote most of their time not to the educational well being of the student but to other business which they are engaged in. in this case, they leave the school when they ought not and as a result, the supervisor might visit and see no teachers in the school. Some teachers usually get unorganized and afraid when they see supervisors. This hampers effective teaching and learning in the classroom.
Some teachers get prepared for the supervisors who inform them of their visits. This they do by trying to be who they are not and making the environment what it has not been. In this case, they make sure they are present in the school.
Qualities of a Supervisor

According to Ndu, Ocho and Okeke (1997), the supervisor of school programmes should posses certain desirable qualities, which will stand him in good stead in the discharge of his responsibility.
i. Respectability: The effective supervisor should be ingredient of respect for himself is important for effective discharge of his role-often, such respect is accorded to him not only because of his good human relations but also appreciation of his superior academic qualifications, professional competence and relevant experiences.
ii. Resourcefulness: One of the distinguishing features of a supervisor is resourcefulness. This trait becomes absolutely necessary when the supervisor is expected to rise to unexpected challenges. He must be adequately endowed to be able to find new ways of solving of old problems, tapping of available sources, suggesting alternative skills and procedures to cope with the often-bewildering problems of the school system.
iii. Creativity and inspiration: The supervisor must have an inquisitive and creative mind to be able to cope with constant changes and inspire the teacher to excellence.
iv. Leadership: Dynamic leadership traits are absolutely necessary of the supervisor. This will help him not only to command obedience to directives; he appreciates the potentialities of teachers and delegates authority when necessary. According to Nwaogu (1980), in selecting a modern school supervisor, the supervisor should posses certain qualities that will make him worthy of undertaking the activity of supervision of instruction.
This includes his personal and professional qualities, which will earn him not only the respect but also the co-operation of those who is to supervise or advise. The qualities will help him to handle the position of responsibility to which he is called personal characteristics.
In choosing persons who are likely to fulfill the role expectation of the modern supervisors, then following personal characteristics seem to be essential.
i. Ability to win respect and confidence: The ability of a supervisor to earn the respect of workers is crucially. His demonstrated competences, integrity and respect for the individuality of other’s will go far to secure the spirit of good human relationship which will earn him respect and co-operation from his colleagues.

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