Effect of Leave Crude Extracts of Azadirachta Indica on the Germination and Growth of Amaranthus Hibridus and Amaranthus Spinosus.

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Effect of Leave Crude Extracts of Azadirachta Indica on the Germination and Growth of Amaranthus Hibridus and Amaranthus Spinosus.

Neem (Azadirachta indica) is one of the very few trees known in the Indian subcontinent (Puri, 1999). This tree belonged to Meliceae family, and grows rapidly in the tropic and semi-tropic climate. It is also observed that this tree could survive in very dry and arid conditions. (Puri, 1999).

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The Neem Tree is an incredible plant that has been declared the Tree of the 21st century by the United Nations (Puri, 1999). In India, it is variously known as ‘Divine Tree’, ‘Life giving tree’, ‘Nature’s Drugstore’, ‘Village Pharmacy’ and ‘Panacea for all diseases’. It is one of the major components in Ayurvedic medicine, which has been practiced in India since many centuries.
Extracts from the Neem tree (Azadirachta indica ) also called ‘Dogonyaro’ in Nigeria are most consistently recommended in ancient medical texts for gastrointestinal upsets, diarrhoea and intestinal infections, skin ulcers and malaria (Schmutterer, 1995). All parts of Neem plant such as leaves, bark, flower, fruit, seed and root have advantages in medical treatment and industrial products. Its leaves can be used as drug for diabetes, eczema and reduce fever. Barks of Neem can be used to make toothbrush and the roots has an ability to heal diseases and against insects. (Puri,1999). The seed of Neem tree has a high concentration of oil. Neem oil is widely used as insecticides, lubricant, drugs for variety of diseases such as diabetes and tuberculosis (Puri, 1999; Ragasa et al., 1996).

A. hybridus L. popularly called “Amaranth or pigweed” is an annual herbaceous plant of 1-6 feet high. The leaves are alternate, petiole 3–6 inches long, dull green in colour and rough, hairy, ovate or rhombic with wavy margins. The flowers are small, with greenish or red Terminal panicles [Clement et al.,2015].
Taproot is long, fleshy red or pink. The seeds are small and lenticellular in shape; with each seed averaging 1–1.5 mm in diameter and 1000 seeds
weighing 0.6–1.2 g. It is rather a common species in waste places, cultivated fields and barnyards. In Nigeria, A. hybridus leaves combined with condiments are used to prepare soup [Clement et al.,2015]. In Congo, their leaves are eaten asbspinach or green vegetables [Dhellot et al., 2006]. These leaves boiled and mixed with a groundnut sauce are eaten as salad in Northern Nigeria and in Mozambique [Oliveria and Decarvalho, 1975]. [Marthin and Telek, 1979] Flowers tiny green flowers are borne in dense, elongated clusters, usually on the tip of the branches. They are borne in spikes or plumes and are white, green, pink or purplish in colour. A. hybridus L. popularly called “Amaranth or pigweed” is an annual herbaceous plant of 1-6 feet high. The leaves are alternate, petiole 3–6 inches long, dull green in colour and rough, hairy, ovate or rhombic with wavy margins. The flowers are small, with greenish or red Terminal panicles [Dhellot et al., 2006].

Spiny amaranth, A. spinosus sometimes called spiny pigweed, is a troublesome weed of vegetables, row crops, and pasture in warm climates. Native to the lowland tropics in the Americas, spiny amaranth has spread through tropical and subtropical latitudes around the world [Holm et al., 1991]. It has become a major weed of rice in the Philippines and is moving into temperate regions in the United States. Its widespread distribution and its sharp spines, which deter grazing and interfere with manual weeding and harvest, have earned spiny amaranth designation as the world’s 15th worst agricultural weed (Holm et al., 1991) Spiny amaranth is an erect, often bushy, much-branched summer annual, growing to heights of 2–5 feet. Stems and leaves are smooth and hairless, sometimes shiny in appearance. Each leaf node along the stem bears a pair of rigid, sharp spines 0.5 inch long (Holm et al., 1991).
Leaf blades are egg-shaped to diamond-shaped, with the broader end closest to the stem, 1–4 inches long by 0.5–2.5 inches wide. The petiole is approximately as long as the blade. Leaves may be variegated with a v-shaped watermark or
area of lighter colour although this is not a definitive characteristic of this species, since some other amaranths can show a similar watermark(Holm et al., 1991).

Like other pigweeds, spiny amaranth develops a strong taproot with a network of fibrous feeder roots. The taproot may or may not be distinctly reddish in color. Male and female flowers are borne on different regions of the same plant; linear or branched terminal spikes with mostly male flowers and globular axillary clusters of mostly female flowers [Bryson and Defelice, 2009].
Amaranth consists of 60-70 species, 40 of which are considered native to the Americas. They are grown in the temperate and tropical climates, and are used as grain or vegetable. They are highly nutritious, contain vitamins and minerals. The leaves, shoots, tender stems and grains are eaten as pot herb in sauces or soups, cooked with other vegetables, with a main dish or by itself. The plants are used as forage for livestock [Bryson and Defelice, 2009].

Taxonomic Classification of Azadirachta indica
Kingdom plantae.
Division Angiosperm.
Sub division Eudicots.
Class Rosids.
Order Sapindales.
Family Meliaceace.
Genus Azadirachta.
Species A. indica.
Henry and burnell, 1996.

Taxonomic Classification of Amarnthus hibridus
Kingdom plantae.
Division Angiosperm.
Sub division Eudicots.
Class Core eudicots.
Order Caryophyllales.
Family Amaranthaceae.
Genus Amaranthus.
Species A. spinosus.
(Mepha et al., 2007).

Taxonomic Classification of Amarnthus spinosus
Kingdom plantae.
Division Angiosperm.
Sub division Eudicots.
Class Core eudicots.
Order Caryophyllales.
Family Amaranthaceae.
Genus Amaranthus.
Species A. hibridus.
(Mepha et al., 2007).

 

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
Aims
To determines the effects of crude extracts of azadirachta indica on germination and growth of Amaranthus hibridus and Amaranthus spinosus. Objectives
To determines whether its reduces or increases germination and growth.
To determine if the crude extracts harmful to growth and germination of those crop.

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
The neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) is an evergreen tree native to India, Pakistan and tropical Southeast Asia. Although it has many uses, the most important use for neem products is to fight against crop pests and diseases without any harmful effects on environment. Neem and its products has been widely reported to control insect pests (Ascher, 1993; Schmutterer, 1995), plant bacterial diseases (Abbasi et al., 2003), plant parasitic nematodes (Muller and Gooch, 1982; Akhtar and Mahmood, 1995), plant fungal diseases (Vir and Sharma, 1985; Amadioha, 2000; Dubey et al., 2009) and a potential agricultural fertilizer (Abbasi et al., 2003). Moreover, in ayurveda, unani and homeopathic medicine almost every part of this tree including seeds, leaves, roots, bark, trunk and branches has multiple uses (Subapriya and Nagini, 2005). It has been estimated that, approximately one third of crops in the field and in storage were lost due to diseases each year. Several attempts have been made to overcome this loss including the use of genetically improved resistance seeds, advanced agronomic techniques and disease management strategies like application of antifungal chemicals and bio-control agents. Among these approaches, biological control is considered as one of the safest and effective strategy to manage field crop pathologies. Neem as a bio-control agent is used for centuries in Asia as a potential antifungal agent (Chaturvedi et al., 2003).
In an in vitro trail, efficacy of t neem product, namely neem leaf diffusate and neem leaf powder were evaluated against various growth stages of Phytophthora infestans and it was concluded that the neem is the most effective agent for the control of late blight (Rashid et al., 2004). In another study, A. indica extract significantly reduced the in vitro mycelial growth (83.6%) of Pyricularia oryzae (causing rice blast) while, in vivo application (through spray) two days before and after inoculation reduced the disease incidence 10.2 to 19.5%, respectively (Amadioha, 2000). Likewise, a neem product (5% Neemazal) has been found to induce resistance in pea (Pisum sativum L.) against Erysiphe pisi (Singh and Prithiviraj, 1997). Vir and Sharma (1985) investigated the different neem oil concentrations against F. moniliforme, A. niger, Drechslera rostrata and Macrophomina phaseolina and observed that 10% neem oil completely (100%) inhibited the mycelial growth of all fungi. Recent studies have also demonstrated the marvelous effects of neem products like neem leaf extracts against A. hybidus and A.spinosus (Niaz et al., 2008), neem leaf extract (NE) against Monilinia fructicola, Penicillium expansum, Trichothecium roseum and A. alternate (Wang et al., 2010) neem seeds and neem leaves extract for A. solani, F. oxysporum, R. solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Moslem and El-Kholie, 2009). During the present study, product of neem (A. indica), such neem leaf extract will be use for investigate against A .hybridus and A.spinosus.

Azadirchta indica leaf extracts can cause decrease of germination capability, loss in weight, discoloration of seeds, heating and mustiness, chemical and nutritional changes, and mycotoxin contamination. They can change fat quality of seed by hydrolytic enzymes producing free fatty acids and glycerol (Kendar and Rolle, 2004).
Altogether, application of leaf extracts will causes change on leaf of amaranthus spp could lead to lower quality of leafy for vegetables and decreases growth because its inhibits photosynthesis (Kendar and Rolle, 2004).
Changing enzymes activity effects storage compounds transmission may cause germination cessation.

Delaying or cessation of storage compounds can reduce respiration substrates and metabolic energy in allelochemicals exposed seeds decreased germination and seedling growth (Fallah et al., 2005). Osmotic effects by affecting water absorbing rate led to delaying seed germination, and cell elongation. In upper concentration of these materials, seed germination and mitosis stopped.
Decreasing in carbohydrate achievement rate by allelochemical inhibitors led to decrees in plant total growth and crop dry weight. Roots are more sensitive to allelopathic compounds than shoots.
Corn root exudates inhibited Amaranthus retroflexus and chenopodium album. Sunflower extract decreased weed canopy to 33%, sorghum residuals decreased Portuleca oleracea L, Digitaria ischaemum L population as 70% and 98%, respectively. Rye, triticale, sorghum and barley extract decreased germination and growth of barnyard grass and sorghum species root extract inhibition ability on Amaranthus retroflexus germination and growth (Fallah et al., 2005). Some species extract caused inhibition of seedling growth of Amaranthus retroflexus. Growth inhibition rate was 12-96% for root, 8-82 for seed germination and 13-75% for shoot growth2. Sorghum residuals decreased Chenopudum album, bristly foxtail and Amaranthus retroflexus germination up to 43- 80 and 95%, respectively. (Wilcox, 2004) reported that sorghum root extract prevented Amaranthus retroflexus seedling growth up to 21-65%. (Fallah et al., 2005). Reported that sorghum extract with 3 and 4% concentration decreased Amaranthus retroflexus seed germination, root, seedling and plant growth. Sorghum extracts with 2-20% concentration decreased seed germination, complete plant and root growth of Amaranthus spinosus, Yamopsis tetragonoloba and Vigra unguiculata .
Neem residuals extract were main inhibition factor for Amaranthus spinosus and bean germination, root and shoot growth . Glycoside and sorgholeon are sorghum active compounds. They are strong inhibitors of Amaranthus spinosus root growth decrease (Fallah et al., 2005).

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