Developing an Urban Transportation Management System

Developing an Urban Transportation Management System

Transportation is the conveyance of goods and people over land, across water and through the air. It is also the movement of people and goods from one place to another by land (by road, rail human porterage, motorized and non motorized vehicles, across water ship, canoe, boat etc) and through the air (helicopter, light and heavy aircraft, etc). one thing is for sure, transportation or transport involves the movement of people, goods and services from origin to destination either by road, air, sea, rail, human porterage, animals, pipeline and even telecommunication or combination of these modes to bring intermodal essence of final movements of such goods, people or services (Wikipedia contributors, 2008). The importance of transportation cannot be over-emphasized. transportation centrally affects the relationship between physical space and society, and changes in transportation affect the organization of human activity in urban and regional space.

Motivation of the Study
Due to the advent of computer, its use in diverse area cannot be over emphasized. One of the most important areas where it is needed in the area of keeping record for archive purposes.
I am being inspired to design a transportation application system for Delta State Transport Service that will help keep proper records of activities relating to transportation. Some of the services includes: record on passengers buses, record on purchases of buses, records on bus hire etc. this will in turn help to achieve maximum efficiency from record being imputed and also improve employee’s performance as every fraudulent act will be boycott.

Statement of the Problem
After several researches carried out on this way Delta State Transport Service Company operate, we look at some of the potential issue and how to deal with them, so you can have a hassle free organization. The following areas in which problems can occur include time wastage, inaccurate record keeping and improper maintenance of vehicles. I will focus on two areas only. Time wastage and inaccurate record keeping.
• Time wastage: a lot of time is wasted in searching for a particular record. A good instance is when we try to retrieve five years records.
• Inaccurate Record keeping: Due to human inefficiency in handling too may files at once, the record of a particular record may be mistakenly switched together thereby leading to wrong information being given.

Aim of the Study
This project work seeks to apply the use of technological advances to help improve the management of Delta State Transport Service by designing and implementing a web based transportation monitoring system for the company.

Objectives of the Study
The major objectives of this research work are to meet the following basic goals.
1. Developing a complete database driven DSTS transportation monitoring system for easy insertion and retrieval of important data.
2. Developing a web based DSTS transportation monitoring system where all the activities concerning record on passenger’s buses, records on bus hire etc, will be determined.
3. To help eliminate the tedious and orthodox method currently practiced by Delta State Transport Service Company.

Scope of the Study
This project work entails the critical analysis of a complete database driven Delta State Transport Service monitoring system particularly on how to determine the total inflow and outflow of income regard to bus hire, loading of passengers etc.

Limitation of the Study
This research work is DSTS monitoring system, the factor that can limit the research ineffective analysis are stated below:
• Electricity
• Trained personnel
• For the application to effectively meet its potential it must be hosted online and this aspect calls for hosting, requires fund.
LITERATURE REVIEW
Urban Transportation
Transportation is the conveyance of goods and people over land, across water and through the air. It is also the movement of people and goods from one place to another by land (by road, rail, human porterage, motorized and non motorized vehicles), across water ship, canoe boat, etc) and through the air (helicopter, light and heavy aircraft, etc). One thing is sure, transportation or transport involves the movement of people, goods and services from origin to destination either by road, Air Sea, rail human porterage, animal’s pipeline and even telecommunication or combination of these nodes to bring inter-modal essence of final movements of such goods, people or services (wikipedia contributors, 2008). The importance of transportation cannot be over emphasized.
Transportation centrally affects the relationship between physical space and society, and changes since transportation affect the organization of human activity in urban and regional space.

It structures the built environment, spurs urban growth, as well as orders relationships among cities in a national urban system (Yago, 1983). In a study on urban transportation issues in both India and North America, Singh (2005) stated that due to increases in population brought about by both natural increase and migration from rural areas and small towns, availability of motorized transport increases in household income, and increases in commercial and industrial activities have added to transport demand.
The expected effect on residential and commercial property markets was positive, but the range of impacts vary from marginal to over 100% in the commercial sector from the North American evidence.

In another study on UK, Singh (2005) found that the impact of road transport was positive particularly regarding capital increase in residential property values. However, the study put less emphasis exact values and some of the observed increase may be due to optimism of the markets rather than actual effects.
Similarly, there is also some evidence that residential property prices might decrease immediately around the transport investment or station. Value increase was determined in the study in a narrow way and mainly through changes in property and land values whereas wider range of measures ought to have been used. The measures should have included changes in accessibility, ownership patterns for land and property, site consolidations, numbers of transactions and yields as well as composite measure such as density of development. In terms of connection between transportation and supply of land, transportation changes extend the supply of urban land for settlement and urban expansions were promoted through transportation advances in addition to evolution of national urban system.

Road Network Pattern and Analysis
Road networks consists of large number of interwoven roads exhibiting many patterns ranging from star like to grid-like with irregular patterns becoming recognized (Sang and Lund University, 2004). It consists of large amounts of roads that interwave with each other to exhibit a pattern.
Patterns are defined as characteristics and properties found in repeated and regular manner within one object or between a number of objects with such repetition in the form of shape, density, distribution, linkages, connection or orientation. These occur among the same kind of objects or different kinds of objects or within an object, or between objects repeated with sufficient regularity. Such repeated properties maybe shape, orientation, connectedness, density or distribution. The frequency of such patterns enables development of prototypical views of geographical process (Mackaness and Edwards, 2002).

The route network is a set of nodes representing spatial locations and displays topological and geometric variations, while topology itself refers to the arrangement and connectivity of nodes and links of a network (Wyatt, 1997). The route network consists of primary and secondary roads known as arterial and minor roads. Respectively, Arterial roads remoderate or high-capacity roads that are below highway level of service, carrying large volumes of traffic between areas in urban centres and designed for traffic between neighborhoods. They have intersections with collector and local streets, a commercial areas such as hoping centres, petrol stations and other businesses are located along such roads.
In addition, arterial roads link up to expressways and freeways with inter-changes (wikipedia contributors, 2008).

According to Aderamo (2003), road network constitutes on important element in urban development as roads provide accessibility required by different land uses and the proper functioning of such urban areas depends on efficient transport network, which is a backbone to their very existence. The analysis of the roads. Zacks and Tversky (2001) examined the idea of events as objects and argued that patterns themselves are objects bounded in space, organized hierarchically, and recognizable by a set of distinctive qualities. The qualities can be emphasized through the process of abstraction and symbolization by which pattern is viewed as complexes of primitive objects and relationship between the primitives. This gives the shape, extent, orientation, density, topology and configuration as their intrinsic properties.
Topology according to xie and Levinson (2006), is an arrangement and connectivity of nodes and links of measuring the spatial structure while configurations refers to collection of objects that comprise the pattern of road networks.

In computing density, the network indicator approach was used to partition road network into different parts in reasonable way before the roads inside each part were extracted and the density calculated using indirectly related parameters. This results in number of connections to describe density differences in networks. The parameter records how many roads connect to each road in a network. for two roads with the same length, the ones in the dense area will connect to more roads than that in a sparse area, and the connection differences will indicate the density differences to some extent; this is by number of connection to show the differences in density among a network (Zhang, 2004).
According to inforain online 2008, road density can also be calculated as the total length of all known roads divided by the total land area in a road network.

Many techniques had earlier been used in analyzing road network patterns, (Mackaness and Beard, 1993; mackaness, 1995; Thomson and Richardson, 1995; mackaness and Edwards, 2002; Jiang and Claramunt, 2004; and Jiang and Harrie, 2004) namely, connectivity, shortest path spanning tree, and minimum cost spanning tree from graph theory to facilitate structural analysis and road selection in the road networks. Another approach based on perceptual grouping was equally used to group road segments according to continuation principle by ordering and selecting strokes into which the roads are segmented (Thomson and Richardson, 1995).
Modern techniques introduced for the explanation of the effects of accessibility on property values range from geographically weighted regression technique, multinomial logic models, to geo-spatial analysis adopting the geographical information systems (GIS). For instance, a study on office rents in Berlin between 1991 and 1997) adopted a regression model to derive residual figure for rent not explained by non-location factors. The residuals were plotted based on the use geographical information systems and found that the street system is modeled as a network and calculated as accessibility values based on the relationship between individual streets and configuration of the system as a whole (Desyllas, 1998). The multiple regression analysis was similarly used in the study on the effects on values of single family dwellings at three of six stations of the opening of the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) on properties in San Francisco; it found small but significant although the economic indicators were retained. Ambrose (1990) concentrated on property specific factors ignoring location variables.

The study relied on data from highly concentrated area of Atlanta metropolis with assumption that there will be no location bias. The study tested series of property characteristics that included size, office space, ceiling height number of drive in doors, number of high docking doors, presence of a railway siding, sprinklers and building age. it found that the variables produced result, which was significant at 0% level.
Another method is agent based simulation of the amount of road used and selection of roads with high level of usage. The approach consist of algorithm based for road generalization adopted to create a version of network of roads that exhibits certain properties which includes good connectivity, length of the roads, degree of continuation and degree and frequency of usage (Morisset and Ruas, 1997). It is pertinent to state that as good and exploratory as these approaches are, they do not guarantee that some that some important properties of road network are not distorted.

Some of the approaches (Morisset and Ruas, 1997; Thomson and Richadson, 1995) ignore the analysis of road network patterns thereby losing its essential patterns. This therefore called for new technique further developed by researchers. One of the techniques to ensure detailed analysis of the road network pattern is the graph theory. Graph theory is a type of directed, weighted network which in relation to transport is typically network of roads, streets, pipes, aqueducts, power liens, or nearly any structure which permits either vehicular movement or flow of some commodity.
Transport networks are spatial structures designed to channel flows from the points of demand to points of supply and so link the points together in a transportation system. They are useful for transport network analysis to determine the flow of people, goods, services and vehicles (Wikipedia contributors, 2008).

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