Determination of the Phytochemical Constituents of Essential Oil from Senna Hirsuta Leaves Using Gas Chromatography

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Determination of the Phytochemical Constituents of Essential Oil from Senna Hirsuta Leaves Using Gas Chromatography

Plants have a limitless ability to synthesize aromatic substances mainly secondary metabolites, of which at least 12,000 have been isolated, a number estimated to be less than 10% of the total (Mallikharjuna, et al., 2007). The synthesized aromatic substances (Metabolites) are used by plants as defensive molecules against predation by microorganisms, insects and herbivores.

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However, some of which may involve in plant odour (terpenoides), pigmentation (tannins and quinines), and flavour (Capsacin) (Mallikharjuna, et al., 2007). Thus, these defensive molecules give plants their therapeutic value which is appreciated by human beings because of their great importance in health care of individuals and communities (Gibile 1986).
Traditional medicine like orthodox medicine has its own methods and techniques of application which however aims at healing disease (Wurochekke, et al., 2008). The treatment and control of diseases by the use of the available medicinal plants in a locality will continue to play significant roles in medical health care implementation in the developing countries of the world (Obadoni and Ochuko, 2001). Nearly, all cultures and civilizations from ancient times to the present day have depended fully or partially on herbal medicine because of their effectiveness, affordability, availability, low toxicity and acceptability (Wurochekke, et al., 2008). Due to ineffectiveness of most drugs as a result of microbial resistance to available agents most especially in developing countries, more patients are seen in herbal medical centers than ever (Mallikharjuna, et al., 2007).

The intractable problem of antimicrobial resistance has led to the resurgence of interest in herbal products as sources of novel compounds to suppress or possibly eradicate the ever increasing problems of emergence of newer diseases thought to be brought under control (Nostro et al., 2000). In view of this, it is therefore very important to search for effective but of low cost and reliable traditional therapeutic agents. Hence also the abuse of drugs for ailment is in high increase which motivated drug resistant organisms (Cohen, 1992).

Aims and objectives
The objective of this research is to determine the phytochemical constituents of essential oil from Senna hirsuta leaves using Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry (GC- MS ) Analysis.

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
REVIEW OF RELATED WORK ON MEDICINAL PLANT
Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants are well recognized at global level (Anwar et al., 2009). As an estimate, over 50% of modern clinical drugs have natural products’ origin (Stuffness and Douros, 1982). World Health Organization has emphasized on the use of traditional medicines and reported about 80% of population from developing countries relies on medicinal plants for their primary health care (Bashir et al., 2009), (Olayiowola, 1982). It is believed that more than 8,000 plants species in South Asia carries medicinal properties, of which 1000 exists in Pakistan (Bashir et al., 2012). Local people use these medicinal plants for the treatment of various ailments through their indigenous knowledge (Hocking, 1958). However, due to modernization, traditional medicines are only practiced in remote rural areas (Ibrar et al., 2007), (Mahmood et al., 2011).
Traditional medicine like orthodox medicine has its own methods and techniques of application which however aims at healing disease (Wurochekke, et al., 2008). The treatment and control of diseases by the use of the available medicinal plants in a locality will continue to play significant roles in medical health care implementation in the developing countries of the world (Obadoni and Ochuko, 2001). Nearly, all cultures and civilizations from ancient times to the present day have depended fully or partially on herbal medicine because of their effectiveness, affordability, availability, low toxicity and acceptability (Wurochekke, et al., 2008). Due to ineffectiveness of most drugs as a result of microbial resistance to available agents most especially in developing countries, more patients are seen in herbal medical centers than ever (Mallikharjuna, et al., 2007).
These plants contain different phytochemicals such as alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, resins, oleoresins, sesquiterpene lactones and oils (essential) (Nostro et al., 2000). Other compounds like furanocoumarins, hydroxycoumarins, napthoquinones, acylphloroglucinols and sterones have also been isolated from these species. It was identified that 74% of the 119 plant derived drugs were discovered as a result of isolation of active substances from medicinal plants (Ogundare, , 2009).

DESCRIPTION OF SENNA HIRSUTA
Senna hirsuta is a large upright herbaceous plant or perennial plant. The stems, leaves & pods are all covered with long pale crysish-white coloured hairs. Its stems are usually ridged length (Amee et al., 2001). Its leaflets are egg-shaped in outline with broad end at base or oval in shape with its margins and there is also a small cone-shaped projection present near the be life of each stalk. (Gbile, 1986). Senna includes herbs, shrubs, and trees. The leaves are pinnate with opposite paired leaflets. The inflorescences are racemes at the ends of branches or emerging from the leaf axils (Stuffness et al., 2000). The flower has five sepals and five usually yellow petals. There are ten straight stamens. The stamens may be different sizes, and some are staminodes. The fruit is a legume pod containing several seeds (Amee et al., 2001).
Senna (Linn), a common name for a genus of the legume family, with about 535 species is widely distributed in the temperate and tropical areas. The genus contains shrubs and trees as well as annual and perennial herbs (Sofowora 2000). The leaves are pinnately compound and are featherlike and have yellow flowers which are often showy. Many are ornamental, and some woody tropical species are among the most important of flowering trees (Crosby, 2009). Some species of Senna are notable for being host to particular butterfly species for example the Cloudless Sulphur butterflies (Sandford, 2000). In addition, the Senna species were classified under the Fabaceae species, but a change in the classification was based on the morphological characteristics as shrubs (Sofowora 2000).
The economical importance of the genus includes its importance to the chemical industries such as the cosmetic industries, and it also serve as source of food; as vegetable (Agboola et al., 1999). During the last two decades due to increasing development of drug resistance in pathogenic organisms as well as the appearance of undesirable side effects of certain antibiotics and the emergence of previously uncommon infections, plant products are being used in substituting these drugs (Gunnar et al., 1991). The medicinal uses of plants melt into their uses for other purposes, as for food, cleaning, personal care and perfumery. Plants are used in medicine to maintain and augment health as well as to treat specific conditions and ailments (Hamilton, 2008). Senna hirsute is planted as a shade, as soil improver and as a green manure. Its leaves have medicinal properties (Gunnar et al., 1991).

 

TAXONOMY OF SENNA HIRSUTA
Taxonomy
Senna hirsuta belongs to the family of Fabaceae. The taxonomic positions of Senna hirsuta are as follows:-
Kingdom Plantae – plantes, Planta, Vegetal, plants

Subkingdom Viridiplantae

Infrakingdom Streptophyta – land plants

Superdivision Embryophyta

Division Tracheophyta – vascular plants, tracheophytes

Subdivision Spermatophytina – spermatophytes, seed plants, phanérogame

Class Magnoliopsida

Superorder Rosanae

Order Fabales

Family Fabaceae – peas, legumes

Genus Senna Mill.

Species Senna hirsuta .

Variety
Senna hirsuta , hairy Senna, woolly Senna, woolly wild sensitive plants

 

ECOLOGY AND DISTRIBUTION OF SENNA HIRSUTA

Ecology
Senna hirsuta can be found in parts of Nigeria, Uganda, and Kenya, in Kenya it can be found in grasslands, bush-land, disturbed sites including roadsides, forest margins, and river banks (Agboola et al., 1999).
In Kenya, Senna hirsuta is regarded as weeds of degraded land and road sides that threatens the habitants of indigenous species. While in queens land Australia this specie is an environmental weed (Sofowora 2000). In south East Asia, S. hirsuta Linn can be found in waste locations, along roadside, plantations (Stuffness et al.,2000) .

Distribution
Senna hirsuta is a weed of disturbed sites, waste areas, road sites and coastal environments in tropical and subtropical regions (Riley et al., 2002). This plant reproduces by seed only and the weeds are probably dispersed by water and animals that eat the pod (fruit) they may also be spread or distributed as contaminant of agricultural product or machinery or foot wear etc. (Khurram, et al., 2009).

THERAPEUTIC AND OTHER USES OF SENNA HIRSUTA
Traditionally, this plant is used to treat poisoning in some Northern tribes usually grates the leaves into water to be drunk in other to treat poisoning from food such as toxic mushrooms or vegetables (Shinwari et al., 2013). S. hirsuta Linn is planted as a shade plant and it is used as soil improver and green manure (Gunnar et al., 1991).
S. hirsuta is used as a green manure and forage plant. In Africa it is planted as a shade plant in young coffee plantation (Adam et al., 2001). The leaves and plant in young pods are eaten, usually steamed or cooked in vegetable dishes or in salads (Sofowora 2000).

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