Antibacterial Activities of Bush Mango Leaves and Bark on E. Coli and Staphylococcus Aureus

Antibacterial Activities of Bush Mango Leaves and Bark on E. Coli and Staphylococcus Aureus

Plants have the major advantages of being the most effective and cheaper alternative source of drugs (Cowan, 1999). The local use of natural plants as primary health remedies, due to their pharmacology properties is quite common in Asia, Latin America and Africa (Nosiri et al., 2011).

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Medicinal plants contain substances that can be used for therapeutic purposes or which are used as precursors for the synthesis of useful drugs (Soforowa., 1993). Researchers on the use of plants as the source of drugs and dietary supplements are increasing in recent years. Plants have been found in vitro to have antimicrobial property as they are rich in a wide variety of secondary metabolites (Cowan.,1999).
Researchers are increasingly turning their attention to natural products looking for leads to develop better drugs against many microbial infections. More than 80% of the world’s population relies on traditional medicines for their primary health care needs. Plants used in traditional medicine contain a wide range of ingredients that can be used to treat chronic as well as infectious disease. The medicinal value of plant lies in some chemical substances present in them. The most important of these bioactive compounds of plant are alkaloids, tannins and phenolic compounds (Soforowa., 1993).

Irvingia gabonensis is a genus of African and south-east Asian trees in the family Irvingiaceae. Other names commonly attributed to it are “Wild Mango” or “Bush Mango” (Matos et al., 2009). In Nigeria, where both the seeds and fruits are well consumed, it is commonly called “Ogbonno” by the Igbos (Nosiri et al., 2011), “Mbukpabuyo” by the Efik and Ibibio, “Aapon” by the Yorubas, “Ogwi” by the Benin people, “Apioro” by the Deltians and “Goronor” by the Hausas (Oral communication). The genus, Irvingia comprises of seven species which include Irvingia gabonensis, Irvingia excels, Irvingia gradifolia, Irvingia malayaria, Irvingia giarobur, Irvingia smithii and Irvingia wombolu (Ladipo et al., 1996). The plant Irvingia gabonensis, bears edible mango-like fruits, and is especially valued for their fat and protein rich nut (Ajuk et al, 1999).
Ethno medicinal treatments utilize the bark, kernels, leaves, or roots for a variety of ailments (Lowe et al, 2000).The bark is mixed with palm oil for treating diarrhea and for reducing the breast-feeding period. The shavings of the stem bark are consumed by mouth to treat hernias, yellow fever, and dysentery, and to reduce the effects of poison in French Equatorial Africa. The antibiotic properties of the bark help heal scabby skin, and the boiled bark relieves tooth pain. Also, in certain parts of Africa, the bark extract is ingested to produce an analgesic effect (Okolo et al, 1995). The seeds have been found to reduce fasting blood glucose levels in obese subjects (Ngondi et al., 2005). The powdered kernels act as an astringent and are also applied to burns (Nosiri et al., 2011). The stems of the tree have been used as chewing sticks to help clean teeth (Fajimi et al., 2007). In Nigeria and Cameroun, the seeds of Irvingia gabonensis are used as a condiment in soup (Ndjouenekeu, 1996). Preliminary phytochemical screening of the aqueous leaf extract of Irvingia gabonensis revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, phenols and phlobatanins. It has been reported that saponins are of great pharmaceutical importance because of their relationship to compounds such as the sex hormones, diuretics, steroids, vitamin D and cardiac glycosides (Adedapo et al, 2009).

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Owing to its’ household acceptability as both medicine and soup condiment in many parts of Africa especially and the world at large (Agbor et al., 2005; Ndoye et al., 1997; Ngondi et al., 2005), it became necessary to investigate other non-researched effects of the leaves and bark extract of the African Bush Mango. Hence, this research on the antibacterial effect(s) if any, on E. coli and S. aureus.
Staphylococcus aureus, can be a serious infectious agent responsible for relatively frequent and severe diseases. Particularly Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are dangerous due to their resistance to most antibiotics currently used in clinical practice (Dzwonkowska et al., 2007; Grinholc et al., 2007; Grinholcet al. 2008).
Antibiotic rarely helps with Escherichia coli infections because they have become resistant and if not treated can develop complications, most common of which is the hemolytic uremic syndrome or HUS (The Patient Education Institute, 2012). Therefore, owing to the above statement, there is the need to determine the antibacterial activity of some of the herbs of which Africa is blessed with abundantly one which is Irvingia gabonensis.

Justification
The antimicrobial activities of bush mango leaves and bark have been well documented. The ethno medicinal importance have also been studied and researched with available data to support such findings. Ironically, statistical data on the antibacterial of bush mango leaves and bark on E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus in general are incomplete, scattered or not comparable, therefore do not yet provide a solid base for decision-making on its antibacterial activities. In the light of the above analogy, this study aimed to investigate the antibacterial activities of bush mango leaves and bark on E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus in order to propose recommendations that can lead to a more complete, streamlined and comparable statistical data on the antibacterial activities of bush mango leaves and bark on E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

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Aim
The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activities of bush mango leaves and bark on E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

Specific Objectives
1. To determine the susceptibility of bush mango leaves and bark extract on E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus.
2. To check the minimum inhibitory concentration of the extract
3. To check the minimum bactericidal concentration of the extract
4. To test for the presence of phytochemical compounds in the leaf and bark extracts.

Significance of Study
This study will not only add to existing literature but will be useful to all stakeholders researching on the bush mango leaves and bark extracts antibacterial activities as it will provide a basis for decision making both to researchers and government institutions for the achievement of Millennium Development Goals.

 

LITERATURE REVIEW
African Bush Mango (Irvingia gabonensis)
Irvingia gabonensis Baill commonly known as “African mango”, “Dika nut” or “bush mango” is a tree of 15-40m, with bole slightly buttressed. Irvingia gabonensis occurs in the wild lowland forest; 2-3 trees occur together and in some areas, it is reported to be gregarious. This plant with edible fruits is largely used in traditional and modern medicine for the treatment of several illnesses, as well as in industry (Lowe et al., 2000; Anegbeh et al., 2003).
Many studies were undertaken on the nutritional or medicinal value of Irvingia gabonensis and have been reported (Surville, 1955; Berhaut, 1975; Adamson et al., 1986; Adamson et al., 1990; Okolo et al., 1995; Ngondi et al., 2005). Methanolic extract of Irvingia gabonensis are used in the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections (Kuete et al., 2007)

Bush Mango Species and uses
Species
Two species of African Bush Mango are well known. Irvingia gabonensis Baillon and Irvingia wombolu Vermoesen are highly valuable and extensively utilized tropical African trees (Ndoye et al., 2000; Ndoye et al., 1997, 1998). They are tall and woody trees with evergreen foliage. Irvingia gabonensis can grow up to a height of about 40m while Irvingia wombolu can grow up to a height of about 25m (Ainge et al.2001). Ainge et al. (2001) confirm that Irvingia gabonensis and Irvingia wombolu are very similar, and often difficult to differentiate. However, they can be distinguished, most noticeably by their edibility of the fruit mesocarp, as well as the density of fibres in the mesocarp, the amount of mucilage in the cotyledons, the size of the endosperm, the height of first branching, the disc shape in unfertilized flowers and the shape of the tree as diagnostic characters.

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Uses
Ainge et al. (2001) provide a comprehensive list of the multiple uses of both types. Bush mango wood is used locally for construction, being a fine-grained, hard, heavy timber. It is also used for making poles and stakes, and live branches are made into walking sticks or thatched roof supports. Branches are also used as firewood. The juicy fruit pulp of Irvingia gabonensis is rich in vitamin C and is widely reported to be consumed as a dessert fruit or snack, with the pulp used for making jam, jelly and juice and sometimes fed to pigs. The fruit pulp of Irvingia wombolu, is however bitter and not edible.
The most well known use of the tree is the oily seed kernels of both species, which are ground with a pestle and mortar or on a stone into a paste or cake and used as a soup, stew or sauce additive, for flavouring and thickening and the slimy consistency they produce. Bush mango kernels form an important part of the West and Central African diet, providing carbohydrate and protein. Fat extracted from the kernels can be used for food, and is also suitable for soap, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. The roots, leaves and the bark particularly of bush mango are used medicinally, often mixed with palm oil to treat diarrhoea, by women to shorten their breast feeding period, for colic, dysentery, hernias, yellow fever, as an anti-poison and antibiotic for healing scabby skin and, particularly when boiled, as a painkiller for toothache. It has been found to contain a narcotic-type analgesic agent and may also contain a non-narcotic active agent. Fresh bark is used to add a bitter taste to palm wine. It is also harvested as a ‘chewing-stick’ for dental hygiene. The leaves have been used as animal fodder (Ainge et al., 2001).

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